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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 81-87

Histopathological effects of acetaminophen abuse in male Wistar rats, and prevalence in human subjects: An experimental and cross-sectional study

1 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Basic Medical Science, College of Medical Science, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria
2 Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Efosa Bolaji Odigie
Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, University of Benin, P.M.B. 1154, Benin City
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1596-2393.177021

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Aim: This study aimed to examine the histopathological effects of acetaminophen (ACMP) abuse in select organs of male Wistar rats. The second goal was aimed at determining the prevalence of ACMP abuse in human subjects. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional design (structured questionnaire and oral interview) was used for data collection from 1911 male to 1009 female subjects, aged (15–72) years in Benin City, Nigeria, between June, 2014 and April, 2015. The animal study was done using 60 adult male Wistar rats with a mean weight of (228.34 g). ACMP was orally administered to 10 Groups of rat in the following order: Groups A1and A2 (400 mg/kg), B1and B2 (800 mg/kg), C1and C2 (1200 mg/kg), and D1and D2, (1600 mg/kg) body weight in rat. Water and feed were provided ad libitum for the duration of ACMP administration that lasted for 21 days (sub-acute exposure) in Group A1, B1, C1, and D1. The administration lasted for 42 days (sub-acute and acute exposures) in Groups A2, B2, C2, and D2while Groups E1and E2served as the control. At termination, all rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, grossed, and processed histologically. Results: The prevalence of ACMP abuse within the study population (males and females, in Benin City, Nigeria) stood at 97.3% and was significantly affected by contributory factors like: Age-group, income, profession, etc. Grossly, renal and hepatic necrosis were observed in the high-dose/acutely exposed treated rats (C2 and D2). Histopathology findings revealed hepatocellular distortion at the central vein of the liver tissue and tubular expansion and increased glomerular space in the kidney. Decrease in body weights of the rats in Groups C2 and D2were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: There was a high incidence of ACMP abuse in the males and females population in Benin City, Nigeria. Prolonged oral consumption of ACMP in animals resulted in hepatocellular and renal deleterious effects and may be of a similar hazard in humans.

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