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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-December 2018
Volume 17 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 49-81

Online since Monday, July 22, 2019

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Anthropometric study of the frontal sinus on plain radiographs in Delta State University Teaching Hospital p. 49
Enaohwo Taniyohwo Mamerhi, Okoro Oghenerieborue Godswill
DOI:10.4103/jeca.jeca_45_16  
INTRODUCTION: The paranasal sinuses are air-filled spaces located within the bones of the skull and face. The different anatomical dimensions of paranasal sinuses can be obtained from plain radiograph and computed tomography images. Determining the possible significant variation of the right and frontal sinuses of males and females is essential for clinical purpose. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this study, therefore, was to measure the anthropometric length and width of the frontal sinus on plain radiograph in different age groups and to determine the possible variations in males and females. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study adopted the simple random sampling technique. The study population comprised 200 individuals (100 males and 100 females). RESULTS: Frontal sinus length and width were measured using the inelastic plastic ruler (in centimeter) and recorded on a data sheet pro forma. The mean total frontal sinus length and frontal sinus width across the entire population for both the right and left sides as regards males and females were given as (4.42 ± 4.79 cm, 3.85 ± 4.24 cm, 4.05 ± 4.44 cm, 3.57 ± 3.93 cm) and (3.64 ± 4.01 cm, 3.29 ± 3.46 cm, 3.23 ± 3.57 cm, 2.83 ± 3.13 cm), respectively. The Student's t-test statistics between the right and left sides in each of the studied parameters were highly statistically significant (P = 0.000). CONCLUSION: The frontal sinus is a constant structure in human beings, but shape and dimensions may vary among individuals; thus, the dimorphic nature of the left frontal sinus dimensions has implications for human identification.
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A simple and sensitive immunoassay method for the detection of low-molecular-weight proteins and neuropeptides p. 53
Abayomi Ajayi, Boonsirm Withyachumnarnkul
DOI:10.4103/jeca.jeca_36_17  
BACKGROUND: Low-molecular-weight proteins and peptides perform numerous regulatory roles in biological systems and could be useful as biomarkers. Hence, qualitative and quantitative measurement of peptide levels has become increasingly important. AIM: This present study was aimed at developing a simple and sensitive dot immunoblot assay (DIA) by modifying existing protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using polyclonal antibody generated against FMRFamide peptide, at a dilution ratio of 1:10,000 in buffer, as a primary antibody, alkaline phosphatase-conjugated goat anti-rabbit antibody as secondary antibody and nitro blue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl phosphate development system, peptides were dotted on 0.2μm nitrocellulose membrane in volumes of 1μl, 0.5μl and 0.2μl. RESULTS: Results show immunoreactivity of FMRFamide antibody to small quantities of dotted neuropeptide as low as 0.2ng and 33.4pM. CONCLUSION: This indicates that this protocol is sensitive with the additional advantage of simplicity, speed, small sample volume, low cost, and production of nonhazardous waste. This DIA protocol could be useful in resource-poor settings and laboratories with low budgets.
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Risk of foot complications in diabetes mellitus; how much do the diabetes mellitus patients in Enugu know? p. 56
Wilfred Okwudili Okenwa, Anthony Jude Edeh
DOI:10.4103/jeca.jeca_23_17  
BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus is a disease that has multisystem effects and complications are known to develop in several organs after some years. Diabetic foot problems are largely preventable and both care givers and the diabetic patient must place high priority on prevention through education. Health providers in developing countries are inadequate, overworked and do not have enough time to spend on health education of their patients. AIM: This study was carried out to evaluate the level of awareness of diabetes mellitus patients of complications of the disease seen in the foot in order to plan and execute effective health education programme to reduce complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study was carried out in the medical outpatient clinic of ESUT teaching Hospital Enugu from January to July 2015 using pretested structured questionnaire. RESULTS: 283 patients were sampled but only 260 supplied data for analysis. In the study, 150(57.7%) were females and 110(42.3%) were males. Age of the participants ranged from 32years to 88years, with mean age 0f 60.2years. Majority of the participants 258(99.2%) had been educated on common foot complications seen in diabetes mellitus. Only 70(27%) of the respondents could recognise loss of sensation in the foot as a sign of foot complication. CONCLUSION: Diabetic foot complication is still high in our diabetics and represents failure of preventive measures, requiring change of modality. Better education of diabetics must be emphasised in addition to any other attempt to curtail the problem.
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Subchronic dichlorvos-induced Cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats: Mitigative efficacy of Nigella sativa oil p. 60
Aminu Imam, Maryam Oluwatobi Busari, Misturat Yetunde Adana, Musa Iyiola Ajibola, Abdulmumin Ibrahim, Fatimoh Ajoke Sulaimon, Moyosore Salihu Ajao
DOI:10.4103/jeca.jeca_18_17  
BACKGROUND: Accidental poisoning from indiscriminate use of organophosphates have become endemic in recent decades, most especially in developing nations, coupled with the limitations of the availability of satisfactory antidotes. AIM OF THE STUDY: Thus, we investigated the cardioprotective efficacy of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) following dichlorvos dichlorvos (DDVP)-induced cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 24 Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6); the control was administered sunflower oil (1 ml/kg), DDVP (8.8 mg/kg) to the experimental Group I, whereas DDVP + NSO (8.8 mg/kg +1 ml/kg) and NSO (1 ml/kg) was administered orally to the experimental Groups II and III, respectively. The animals were euthanized; blood was transcardially collected from the right atrium, centrifuged, and plasma extracted to analyze levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). While cardiac muscle tissue was collected from the left heart, processed and stained for general architecture (hematoxylin and eosin) and elastic morphology (orcein). RESULTS: DDVP significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased the plasma levels of TC, LDL, atherogenic and atherosclerotic indices (TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios), but this was prevented by co-administration with NSO. Histological investigations showed that DDVP resulted in the pathological appearance of cardiac tissues, such as the lack of striations, myocardial hemorrhage, and necrosis-like features. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that NSO was able to attenuate DDVP-induced cardiotoxicity.
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Presence of GFSKLYFamide-like neuropeptide in the nervous tissue of Holothuria scabra: Immunohistochemical evidence p. 66
Abayomi Ajayi, Boonsirm Withyachumnarnkul
DOI:10.4103/jeca.jeca_3_18  
BACKGROUND: Physiological activities in animals and other biological systems are often regulated by neuropeptides. GFSKLYFamide neuropeptide, an echinoderm SALMFamide, was first isolated from the sea cucumber, Holothuria glaberrima, an echinoderm, in 1992 (Díaz-Miranda et al., 1992). Since this discovery, there have been unresolved questions regarding the interphyletic and intraphyletic distribution of GFSKLYFamide neuropeptide. AIM: The study was done in an attempt to answer these questions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An immunohistochemical study was conducted on the radial nerve cord of Holothuria scabra utilizing an antibody specifically raised against GFSKLYFamide. RESULTS: Results show strong and widespread localization of GFSKLYFamide immunoreactivity, including the ectoneural and hyponeural regions of the radial nerve cord. CONCLUSION: This, to the best of our knowledge, is the fi rst report that provides evidence for the presence of GFSKLYFamide-like neuropeptide in the nervous tissue of this species.
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Topographic anatomy of the neurovascular bundle at the tarsal tunnel and its applied significance p. 70
Nehal Mohamed Nabil, Nesrine Al Homosani, Dalia Biram
DOI:10.4103/jeca.jeca_5_18  
BACKGROUND: There are different surgical procedures and treatment modalities dealing with medial ankle region such as placement of percutaneous pins in the calcaneus, decompression in tarsal tunnel syndrome, and nerve block. This requires detailed anatomical knowledge about the neurovascular bundle to avoid iatrogenic injury. AIM OF THE WORK: To study the topography of nerves and vessels at the tarsal tunnel in relation to surface anatomical landmarks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The medial calcaneal region of 20 lower limbs of formalin preserved specimens was dissected. The neurovascular structures were identified within a quadrangle named ABCD, formed by four palpable bony landmarks, respectively: inferior tip of medial malleolus, posterior superior tip of calcaneal tuberosity, posteroinferior aspect of medial calcaneus, and tuberosity of navicular bone. A regression analysis was done to correlate the lengths of the four imaginary lines connecting the four bony landmarks with the location of the neurovascular structures. RESULTS: The posterior tibial artery was located medial to the tibial nerve in 50% of cases. The bifurcation of the artery was found to be proximal to that of the nerve in only one case. The number of the medial calcaneal nerves (MCNs) varied from 1 to 3 branches; the most common was one branch (50%). In two cases, there was high origin of the MCN at a distance of 15.4 and 23.5 cm proximal to the ankle region. CONCLUSION: The location of the neurovascular bundle at the tarsal tunnel could be predicted by measuring the distances between the anatomical bony landmarks.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Bilateral “quadriceps gastrocnemius” and termination of small saphenous vein outside the popliteal fossa in a cadaver p. 76
Dawit Habte Woldeyes, Abebe Muche Moges
DOI:10.4103/jeca.jeca_14_18  
The gastrocnemius muscle located on the posterior compartment of the leg, has two heads. Muscular variations presumably seriously compromise parts of the muscular, vascular, nervous, and skeletal and/or organ systems. The main causes of gastrocnemius muscle variation may be due to an error of embryologic developmental timing or persistence of an embryologic condition. On the other hand, variations in the origin, course, and termination of the superficial veins of the lower limb are common. However, variations of the short saphenous are rarely reported. Knowledge on the anatomical variations of structures has clinical significance to surgeons, radiologists who interpret plain and computerized imaging.
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Successful antibiotic therapy in early prosthetic valve endocarditis with large vegetation p. 79
Erick Hoetama, Bambang Budi Siswanto, Rarsari Soerarso, Nani Hersunarti
DOI:10.4103/jeca.jeca_11_18  
Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is a fearful complication of cardiac valve replacement surgery. Compared with the late presentation, early PVE is associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality. Despite significant improvement in our understanding regarding the treatment of native valve endocarditis, the optimal treatment for PVE is still a matter of debate. There is still no clear agreement whether to choose surgery or medication as the best therapeutic option for PVE patient. Furthermore, the timing of surgery for PVE has not yet been defined.
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