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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-June 2019
Volume 18 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-78

Online since Thursday, November 28, 2019

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Analysis of morphometric and somatoscopic traits of auricle of ear in India: Relation with diversified ethnicities p. 1
M Maitreyee
DOI:10.4103/jeca.jeca_17_18  
BACKGROUND: India is a country with large population and a mixture of ethnicities with Indo-Aryan, Dravidian, and Mongoloid ethnicities largely located in the six zones of the country, predominantly in North, South, and Northeast zones, respectively. There is a possibility of differences in auricular features among them and such data may be useful in different fields. Hence, the morphometry and somatoscopy of auricles were studied in the Indian population from the six zones of India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Measurements of auricles of the ear of 350 individuals from six zones of India were taken and somatoscopic variations were also recorded. RESULTS: Morphometric parameters showed no zone-wise difference except prominence of the ear, which was different in the West and Central zones. All morphometric parameters showed sexual dimorphism. There was positive correlation between “auricle length (AL) to auricle attachment/root (AR)” as well as “AL to face length (FL)”. Somatoscopic parameters showed no statistically significant zone-wise difference. Rolled helix, free ear lobes, and the presence of Darwin tubercle showed predominance in the population. CONCLUSION: Although the North, Northeast, and South zones of India are supposed to have predominance of particular ethnicities, the present study derived that these ethnicities do not reflect in zone-wise differences in most of the parameters. Strong positive correlation of AL to auricle root as well as to FL has practicability in various fields, especially in reconstructive surgeries or in forensic identification. Although West and Central zones showed the difference in auricle prominence, there is still a need for appropriate definition of a “prominent ear”.
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Effect of age, premedical academic performance, and entry bias on students' performance in final preclinical examination at the University of Nigeria Medical School p. 6
Nto Johnson Nto, Emmanuel Nebuwa Obikili, Godson Emeka Anyanwu, Augustine Uchechukwu Agu, Emmanuel Anayochukwu Esom, Joseph Okike Ezugworie
DOI:10.4103/jeca.jeca_2_19  
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY: There is a strong correlation between admission requirements and students' academic performance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of age, premedical academic performance, and entry bias on students' performance in final preclinical examination at the University of Nigeria Medical School. METHODS: Data were obtained from files of students admitted into the medical school in the 2010/2011, 2011/2012, and 2012/2013 academic sessions. SPSS (version 20.0, IBM computer USA) was used to analyze the data, and statistical tests such as ANOVA, Pearson's correlation, and regression analysis were used to analyze the observations. RESULTS: The younger students performed significantly better than their older counterparts in the final preclinical examination, determined by one-way ANOVA (P < 0.05). Students with high 100 level CGPA performed significantly (P < 0.05, ANOVA) better than those low CGPA. Only 100 level CGPA can predict students' academic performance in the final preclinical examination (R2 = 83.1%, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Age is an important criterion in the admission process. O-level grades, Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME), and University of Nigeria Nsukka (UNN) post-UTME are reliable criteria for admission; however, of these, only 100-level CGPA can be used to predict students' performance final preclinical examination.
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Determination of the potentials of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Buchholzia coriacea in preventing sodium metabisulphite-induced oxidation of some hemoglobin SS erythrocyte membrane proteins p. 12
Olasunmbo Oluwaseun Afolayan, Muhammad Nurudeen Nurudeen, Ayorinde Babatunde James, Abayomi Olugbenga Okanlawon
DOI:10.4103/jeca.jeca_8_19  
BACKGROUND: The sustenance of the erythrocyte membrane integrity is crucial to ensuring a continuous lamina flow of erythrocytes through narrow blood vessels. So it is imperative to find a substance to attenuate the oxidation of erythrocytes that cause the membrane structure remodelling. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hydrating strength and modulatory effect of Buchholzia coriacea seed extracts on erythrocyte membrane proteins degradation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of B. coriacea were obtained following standard procedures. Blood samples (5.00 mL) from five known hemoglobin SS individuals in steady state were subjected to electrophoresis to establish the genotype of the individuals. The osmotic fragility assay was performed with 2.50, 5.00, 10.00 and 20.00 mg/mL of the extracts in the presence of different concentrations of phosphate-buffered saline. The graph of percentage hemolysis was plotted against saline concentration, and the mean corpuscular fragility (MCF) determined. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was also done using the same concentrations of extracts. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.01) between the average MCF in all the extract concentration and the control. Protein 4.1 and Ankyrin did not appear on the electrophoretic lanes of all the test samples when compared with the control. However, spectrin and ankyrin bands were visible with regular size and intensity. CONCLUSION: B. coriacea seed extracts possess antihemolytic character. However, it does not have the ability to maintain the erythrocyte membrane model despite its acclaimed antioxidant character.
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Histological and morphometric assessment of cutaneous wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with n-hexane extract of Leptadenia hastata p. 19
Martha Orendu Oche Attah, Tonye Watson Jacks, Sani Hyelamada Garba, Helga B Ishaya
DOI:10.4103/jeca.jeca_6_19  
CONTEXT: A wound is defined as a loss or breaking of cellular, anatomical, or functional continuity of living tissues. Diabetes may delay the process of wound healing leading to development of chronic wounds. Healing impairment of diabetic wounds presents serious clinical problems for both diabetic patients and physicians worldwide. AIMS: This study aims to validate the use of Leptadenia hastata in the treatment of diabetic and nondiabetic wounds. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Diabetes mellitus was induced in twenty Albino rats using a single injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg i.p.). The rats were divided into four groups (III–VI) consisting of five rats each. In addition, ten nondiabetic rats were grouped into I and II. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Full-thickness excision wounds extending to the subcutaneous tissue were made on the mid-dorsal region, and rats in Group III–VI had their wounds treated with olive oil, 100 mg/kg of extract, 200 mg/kg of extract, and procaine penicillin, respectively. Rats in Groups I and II received olive oil and 200 mg/kg of extract, respectively, for 28 days. Wound areas were calculated, and histological sections of the wound area were analyzed. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Data were statistically analyzed using GraphPad InStat software using one-way analysis of variance and expressed as mean ± standard error of mean and percentage followed by Bonferroni multiple comparisons test. RESULTS: Analysis of wound area in all groups revealed that the extract promoted wound healing in the diabetic rats by significantly (P < 0.05) increasing the thickness of the epithelial layers and stimulated collagen synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: The extract enhanced diabetic wound healing by reducing inflammation, increasing wound contraction and epithelialization.
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Reference values of body adiposity measures and hand digit ratio (2D:4D) for dyslipidemia: A case study of the Hausa ethnic group in Kano, Nigeria p. 30
Abdullahi Yusuf Asuku, Barnabas Danborno, Shehu Abubakar Akuyam, James Abrak Timbuak, Abdurrazaq Mohammed, Lawan Hassan Adamu
DOI:10.4103/jeca.jeca_9_19  
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia is an important component of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and constitutes a leading cause of cardio-metabolic-related deaths globally. There are currently ongoing efforts to define upper reference values (URVs) of anthropometric parameters for the components of MetS in different ethnic groups. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to determine URV of digit ratio (2D:4D) and body adiposity measures for dyslipidemia in Hausas of Kano. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional observational study involving 465 (266 males and 199 females) Hausas of Kano, with a mean age of 34.4 years and 32.0 years for males and females, respectively. Systematic random sampling technique was employed. Adiposity indices were measured using standard anthropometric techniques. Serum lipids were measured using standard laboratory analyses of overnight fasting serum sample. Data were described using a mean and SD. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Younden Index were used to determine URV. RESULTS: In male and female participants, the waist-to-hip ratio had the largest area under the ROC curve (AUROCC) with the highest sensitivity and specificity for total cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, while neck circumference and body adiposity index had the lowest AUROC curve with lower sensitivity and specificity. CONCLUSION: Hand digit ratio (2D:4D) has a URV for dyslipidemia. The URV of adiposity indices for Hausa ethnic group of Kano for abnormal serum lipids is different from the popularly adopted URV for estimating the risk of MetS.
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A study of magnetic resonance imaging-derived cervical spinal cord dimensions in young adult Nigerians: Clinical relevance p. 38
Chika Anele Ndubuisi, Kelechi Onyenekeya Ndukuba, Samuel Chinonyerem Ohaegbulam, Tobechi Nwankwo Mbadugha, Moses Osaodion Inojie, Anthony Jude Edeh
DOI:10.4103/jeca.jeca_3_19  
INTRODUCTION: Knowledge of cervical cord dimensions is important in making diagnosis of pathological conditions of the spinal cord. This study used magnetic resonance imaging to determine the normal dimensions of the cervical spinal cord in young adult Nigerians and the influence of age and sex on these dimensions. METHODS: A prospective study of 100 healthy asymptomatic individuals (50 males and 50 females) aged 21–40 years was carried out at Memfys Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. Disc-level axial T1-weighted 0.35T magnetic resonance images of anteroposterior dimensions (APDs) and transverse dimensions (TDs) were obtained from C2/C3 to C7/T1 in millimeters. Approximate cord area (ACA) was calculated as the product of APD and TD. Test of significance for age- and sex-adjusted dimensions was determined. RESULTS: TD increased from C2/3 (12.2 ± 1.0 mm) to peak at C5/6 level (13.4 ± 1.2 mm) before dropping to 11.6 ± 1.4 mm (C7/T1). APD decreased from 8.1 ± 0.6 mm (C2/3) to 6.9 ± 0.7 mm (C7/T1). ACA also increased from 98.7 ± 11.7 mm2 (C2/3) to peak value of 103.3 ± 14.6 mm2 (C5/6), but dropped to 80.0 ± 14.3 mm2 (C7/T1). In general, there was no significant gender-based difference in values of the cord dimensions except in TD at C2/3 (0.036). ANOVA revealed a significant difference in age-adjusted values of TD (0.022) and AP (0.042) at C5/6. Only TD values had significant variability at C5/6 level when individuals in the age group of 36–40 years were compared to those <30 years old. CONCLUSION: TD and ACA give more representative values of cervical spinal cord size and should be utilized clinically in the assessment of these dimensions. The C5/6 has the highest cervical spinal cord dimension. Sex-adjusted dimensions generally did not show statistically significant difference. There is subtle but significant reduction in TD of cervical spinal cord at C5/6 level toward the age of 40 years.
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Ripe fruit Carica papaya administration attenuates testicular connective tissue alterations in experimental alcohol toxicity model p. 43
Ikanna E Asuquo, Innocent A Edagha
DOI:10.4103/0929-6441.271861  
BACKGROUND: The use of fruits as natural remedies to mitigate cellular and tissue induced alterations caused by exogenous toxins like alcohol have been widely documented, and the ethnopharmacological potentials of the Carica papaya have also been reported. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The study aims to investigate if ripe fruit carica papaya administration attenuates testicular connective tissue alterations in experimental alcohol toxicity model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty (30) animals weighing between 150 to 220 g were used for this study, divided into 6 groups as follows; group 1 received distilled water 2 ml per kilogram body weight, group 2 received 40 % ethanol 5 ml per kilogram body weight, group 3 received 40 % ethanol 5 ml + clomiphene citrate 50 mg per kilogram body weight, groups 4, 5 and 6 received 40 % ethanol 5 ml + 500, 1000 and 1500 mg C. papaya per kilogram body weight respectively. Rats were weighed and thereafter sacrificed by anaesthetizing with chloroform, thoraco-abdominal wall dissected to access the heart and the testes. Harvested testes were fixed and sent to the laboratory for processing and histological analysis. RESULTS: Result of histological analysis showed ethanol treatment induced testicular atrophy, spermatogenic cell degeneration, interstitial tissue vacuolations, connective tissue disruptions, conditions which were ameliorated by C. papaya. This ameliorative potential of C. papaya appeared to be effective and dose dependent. CONCLUSION: While it is attributable that C. papaya may confer protective capabilities against ethanol induced testicular connective tissue damages, this study provides evidence that moderate intake of C. papaya ameliorated injuries induced by ethanol to the testicular connective tissue of rats with a mechanism believed to be antioxidant mediated.
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Perception of anatomy as a career choice among students of human anatomy in Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria p. 49
Oladunni Abimbola Ebeye, Emmanuel Enatewe Akpoyibo, Jonathan Ekiegini Okoh-Uku
DOI:10.4103/jeca.jeca_37_18  
BACKGROUND: Anatomy is the branch of medical science that deals with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts. It has encroached into so many disciplines and thus its relevance to career choice. This research work is aimed at assessing the perceptions of anatomy as a career choice among students studying human anatomy in Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Simple random sampling technique was used to select 384 participants (168 males and 216 females) from the 2nd to the 4th year studying human anatomy and cell biology in Delta State University, Abraka, aged 16–32 years. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data for the study, and the data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 23). RESULTS: This study revealed that students with the perception of choosing anatomy as a career after graduation are significantly low compared to those who have no interest in anatomy as a career choice with the percentages of 39% and 61%, respectively. CONCLUSION: From the study conducted, human anatomy as a career choice has relatively low perception among students because anatomy was not their preferred course of study; rather, the course was offered to them on demerit on their first preferred course of study.
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Quantitative anthropometric and dermatoglyphic variation of the major ethnic populations in Nigeria p. 55
Moses Olusola Adetona, Mathew Temitayo Shokunbi
DOI:10.4103/jeca.jeca_33_18  
BACKGROUND: Anthropometry is one of the oldest and widely used measures of human variation. Dermatoglyphics is a valuable technique in human population studies by virtue of its uniqueness, genetic determination, and less vulnerability to selection than other genetic markers. AIMS: The study aims (1) to elucidate the traditional ethnic identities in Nigeria which are increasingly facing disintegration due to improved means of communication and urbanization and reduced inbreeding and (2) to describe ethnic characteristics that may be valuable for forensic application and future studies of effects on human diversity. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We obtained quantitative anthropometric and dermatoglyphic data from 560 volunteers of both sexes, of Yoruba, Igbo, and Hausa origin. The sampling fraction used to attain target sample size for random selection of eligible volunteers was based on the national population figure. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Univariate analysis of variance was used to determine patterns variations, while multivariate analysis was used to determine discrimination among ethnic populations. RESULTS: The anthropometric and dermatoglyphic variables revealed a discrimination that is consistent with ethnohistorical affiliations. Multiple discriminant analysis of the anthropometrics showed higher discrimination power than the dermatoglyphic variables. The derived ethnic classifying equations from anthropometric parameters classified volunteers as Yoruba 78.2%, Hausa 82.4%, Igbo 91.4%; the dermatoglyphic parameters classified volunteers as Yoruba 66.8%, Hausa 57.4%, Igbo 65.3%. The canonical discriminant function of the anthropometric and dermatoglyphic variables showed clustering of the ethnic populations around each ethnic centroid. CONCLUSIONS: The results provide ethnohistorical insights into the structure of the ethnic populations and demonstrate the relationship of the gene flow in the ethnic groups through their exhibited phenotypic characteristics.
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Evaluation of the wound healing effects of Jatropha curcas latex on intact and wounded skin in wistar rats p. 63
Hilary Oguekhian Elimian, Gerald Ikechi Eze
DOI:10.4103/jeca.jeca_25_18  
BACKGROUND: Wounds have posed a major challenge to human. It has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality. One of the herbs commonly used among the Edo people to treat wound is Jatropha curcas. It is used for the treatment of superficial wound, to secure hemostasis on wounded skin, as purgative, soap, and for making hedge around farm. It is a species of flowering plant in the genus Jatropha in the spurge family Euphorbiaceae. AIM: This study aimed at evaluating the effects of J. curcas sap on normal and wounded skin of rats. The objectives were to investigate the wound-healing effects of J. curcas in Wistar rats as well as its effects on intact skin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study involved the use of 24 Wistar rats which were placed in four Groups of six Wistar rats each (labeled A, B, C, and D). Group A had 3-cm long incision inflicted on the back of the Wistar rats and was treated with the latex of J. curcas. This was compared with Group B that had the same size of wound and was treated with 0.9% normal saline. Group C had the crude sap of J. curcas applied on intact skin. Group D had no wound and nothing applied to the skin. The animals were sacrificed after 28 days, and the histology of the normal and wounded skin was examined. RESULTS: The J. curcas formed blood clots within 5 s of application unlike that treated with normal saline. The histological examination showed that the healing with J. curcas was greater with the re-establishment of the skin layer. The unwounded skin treated with J. curcas latex showed exfoliation of the stratum corneum. CONCLUSION: This study has shown that the latex of Jatropha curcas has haemostatic properties. There was greater wound healing effects when compared to normal saline.
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Moringa oleifera leaf extract potential in ameliorating MK-801-induced schizophrenia p. 69
Fabiyi Oluseyi Sunday, Shallie Philemon Dauda, Owolabi Joshua Oladele, Olatunji Yinka Sunday, Aremu Sayo Abosede, Shallie Oluwadamilola Faith
DOI:10.4103/jeca.jeca_21_17  
BACKGROUND: This research investigated and reports histomorphological evidences of Moringa oleifera leaf extract potential in ameliorating mk-801-induced schizophrenia in prefrontal cortex of adult. This provides insight into potential management of schizophrenia using phytomedicinal materials. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty adult Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) weighing 210 g on an average were recruited and divided into groups tagged A, B, C, D, and E with eight animals (four males and four females) in each group. Group A (control) were fed ad libitum, Group B (preventive) took 0.4 mg/kg of dizocilpine and 200 g/kg of M. oleifera concurrently for 14 days, Group C (treated) took 0.4 mg/kg of dizocilpine only for 14 days, Group D (protective) took 200 g/kg of Moringa for the fi rst 7 days and 0.4 mg/kg of dizocilpine for the other 7 days, and Group E (curative) took 0.4 mg/kg of dizocilpine for the fi rst 7 days and 200 g/kg of M. oleifera for the other 7 days. General histological demonstration of the PFC was done using the H and E, cresyl fast violet, and luxol fast blue staining techniques. RESULTS: Results showed that M. oleifera produced observable effects on the brain PFC of a dizocilpine-induced schizophrenia, especially on its attributable structures such as cellular integrity, myelin sheath, and Nissl substance. It could, therefore, be said that dizocilpine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist, causes alteration in the histoarchitecture, causing loss of Nissl substance as well as reduced integrity of white matter (myelin sheath). CONCLUSION: M. oleifera leaf extract produced observable positive effects against dizocilpine-induced schizophrenia by preserving most neurons and glia when administered concurrently with dizocilpine and by restoring cell population and integrity when administered after dizocilpine exposure.
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Testosterone propionate ameliorates oxidatve stress and inflammation in nicotine-induced testicular toxicity p. 74
Victor Okoliko Ukwenya
DOI:10.4103/jeca.jeca_10_19  
BACKGROUND: Nicotine (NICO) is a major constituent of cigarette smoke and has been associated with adverse effects on the testes and male reproductive profile. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study was initiated to investigate the effects of testosterone (TES) propionate in NICO-induced testicular toxicity in rats by investigating the quantitative localization and intensity of immune expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and Ki-67. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups as follows: Group A: NICO only; Group B: NICO+TES propionate (NICO+TES); and Group C: Normal Control. 0.8 mg/kg body weight of NICO and 2.5 mg/kg of TES propionate were administered, respectively, for 30 days after which the rats were sacrificed, and the testes were processed for antioxidant enzyme assay and immunohistochemical analysis. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical study showed elevated COX-2 immunoexpression in the germinal epithelium of the NICO group relative to the NICO+TES and control groups. Ki-67 was expressed in the spermatozoa of all experimental groups. The primary spermatocytes of NICO+TES and control groups additionally tested positive for Ki 67. The results also showed a higher level of oxidative stress markers in the NICO group compared to the NICO+TES and control groups. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that NICO toxicity in the testes is mediated through inflammation and apoptosis as well as induction of oxidative stress; and that TES propionate ameliorates the severity of toxicity induced by NICO in rat testes by reducing the inflammation and oxidative stress.
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