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  Most popular articles (Since January 30, 2014)

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effects of aqueous leaf extract of Chaya (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) on pituitary-gonadal axis hormones of male Wistar rats
Sakpa Christopher Lucky, Okhimamhe Akhalumhe Festus
July-December 2014, 13(2):34-39
DOI:10.4103/1596-2393.154394  
Introduction: Male fertility is controlled by a complex assortment of pituitary-gonadal hormones. This regulation is key to understanding problems with fertility. The level to which some plants consumed by man contribute to his fertility problems is yet to be fully explored. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of Chaya on pituitary gonadal hormone axis in male wistar rats. Methodology: The study was conducted using 24 wistar rats randomized into three control and three treatment groups of four rats each. The treatment rats received 1.5g/kg body weight of Chaya extract by gavage. Blood samples were collected at various time intervals for hormonal assay and statistical analysis performed. Findings: There was a statistically significant decrease (P = 0.010) in testosterone levels and elevated LH and FSH levels (P = 0.432 and P = 0.939 respectively) in the treatment rats. The testosterone / estrogen ratio was also elevated. These effects were duration of treatment dependent.
  13,832 776 1
Effects of amlodipine besylate on testicular histology, sperm cells count, morphology and motility in adult male Wistar rats
Adelaja Akinlolu, Olaide Ghazal, Kayode Lewu, Fatai Babatope, Ibrahim Huthman, Adebayo Adefule
July-December 2013, 12(2):75-81
DOI:10.4103/1596-2393.127966  
Aims/Introduction: Amlodipine besylate (5 or 10 mg daily) is a long-acting calcium-channel blocker used in men for the treatment of hypertension and angina. This study tested the hypothesis that administration of amlodipine besylate impairs fertility in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine normotensive adult male Wistar rats (weighing 150-250 g) were employed in the study. Rats of Control Group I received physiological saline while rats of experimental Groups II-VI received 5, 10, 15, 20 and 40 mg/kg BW of amlodipine besylate respectively for 56 to 65 days. Results: Histological analyses showed dose-dependent anomalies of the testes such as scanty seminiferous tubules, wider tubular lumen and significantly reduced sperm cells in rats that received 20 and 40 mg/kg BW of amlodipine besylate. Dose-dependent anomalies of sperm morphology such as sperms with arrow or pin head and double tail as well as significantly reduced sperm cells count and motility ( P ≤ 0.05) were observed in rats of the experimental groups. Conclusion: This study observed impaired fertility in adult male rats treated with 15 mg/kg BW and higher doses of amlodipine besylate.
  8,780 376 -
Nutritional evaluation using different anthropometric variables in Nigerian school children
AO Ibegbu, David E Tosin, WO Hamman, UE Umana, SA Musa
July-December 2013, 12(2):42-49
DOI:10.4103/1596-2393.127952  
The anthropometric characteristics of 600 apparently healthy children of ages between 5 and 10 years of Gbagyi tribe of Abuja Nigeria, consisting of males (n = 300) with a mean age of 7.10 ΁ 1.98 and females (n = 300) with a mean age of 7.68 ΁ 1.86 were selected for the evaluation of their nutritional status using different anthropometric variables. The anthropometric characteristic of their height, age, weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest circumference and body mass index (BMI) was measured and analysed statistically for any significant difference, and correlation between the parameters studied. The results show some significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) between the anthropometric parameters and a significant correlation (≤0.001) between the height and BMI, and other parameters in males and females. The study derived a linear regression and a multiple linear regression equations for Gbagyi children from which height, age, weight, MUAC, chest circumference and BMI could be predicted if one factor is known. The results from the present study provided an insight into the nutritional status of Nigerian school children of Gbagyi tribe of Abuja using the BMI and MUAC which showed if a child is malnourished, overweight or obese. The results from the present study show that there is a positive correlation between height and age, and other parameters indicating that height could be predicted using age, weight, BMI, chest circumference and MUAC, while BMI and mid upper arm circumference could be a useful tool in the estimation of nutritional status among Nigerian school children of Gbagyi tribe of Abuja.
  5,427 988 1
Fingerprint patterns in relation to gender and blood group among students of Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria
Dennis E.O. Eboh
July-December 2013, 12(2):82-86
DOI:10.4103/1596-2393.127969  
Introduction: Fingerprint patterns are genotypically determined and remain unchanged from birth till death. Purpose of the study: The purpose of this study was to determine fingerprint patterns in relation to gender and blood group among students of Delta state University, Abraka, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 490 subjects, aged 17-30 years were drawn using the systematic random sampling technique. The blood group of each subject was obtained from the records in the medical laboratory register of the Health Centre of the University. Results: Fingerprints of each subject were obtained using endorsing ink and plain white paper. Female had higher percentage of loop and whorl while male had higher percentage of arch. There was no significant association between gender and finger print patterns. Within the respective ABO blood groups, loop had higher percentages compared to arch and whorl. There was no significant association between finger print patterns and ABO blood group. Within the respective Rhesus blood groups, loop had higher percentages compared to arch and whorl. There was significant association between finger print patterns and Rhesus blood group. Within the respective ABO-Rhesus blood groups, loop had higher percentages compared to arch and whorl, except in blood group O negative where whorl has higher percentage. There was significant association between finger print patterns and ABO-Rhesus blood group. Conclusion: The study showed that fingerprints, gender and ABO blood groups can only be used independently to identify an individual.
  5,416 699 -
Anatomical investigation on the appendicular skeleton of the cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis)
Hamdy Mahmoud Rezk
January-June 2015, 14(1):5-12
DOI:10.4103/1596-2393.158919  
Introduction: The Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) is a cosmopolitan species of heron (family Ardeidae) found in the tropics, subtropics and warm temperate zones. It is the only member of the monotypic genus Bubulcus. Cattle egret is popular for its role in the bio-control of cattle parasites and land pests. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on five adult, apparently healthy, cattle egrets. The birds were euthanized and the skeletons were prepared by the cold maceration method. Results: The appendicular skeleton of the cattle egret consists of the pectoral (shoulder) girdle and appendage, and pelvic girdle and appendages. The pectoral girdle comprises the long flat scapula, coracoid bone, and the united paired clavicles. Canalis triosseum is a canal formed by the attachment of the three bones of the pectoral girdle. The furcula formed fi brous connection with the sternum. The radius and ulna have the same length. The wrist comprises two carpal bones, carpometacarpus and three digits. The pubic bones are not fused ventrally. The pes consists of tibiotarsus, tarsometatarsus and four pedal digits. The tibiotarsus is longer than the femur. The spur is not found in the male bird. Conclusion: The skeleton of the cattle egret has a unique conformation that accommodates its ability to flight as well as being an insectivorous animal.
  5,097 364 1
EDITORIAL
The Nigerian human anatomist and the emerging forensic challenges
Blessing Chimezie Didia, Emamoke Joy Olotu
January-June 2014, 13(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/1596-2393.142916  
  4,862 298 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence of uterine fibroid in a South-Western Nigerian population: A sonographic study
Victor Ukwenya, Nwakaego Maduemezia, Olasunmbo Afolayan, Oluwole Alese, Wilson Thomas
January-June 2015, 14(1):24-29
DOI:10.4103/1596-2393.158926  
Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of uterine myoma, its variations, location, size and uterine anteroposterior diameter. Materials and Methods: The study utilized transabdominal ultrasound to assess myoma in 2,575 female patients. Results: Investigation showed 176 cases of myoma, representing a prevalence of 6.83%. 25% of the cases were associated with pregnancy, with solitary myoma accounting for 79.55%. Solitary myoma was noted in 59.09%. Analysis for multiple fibroid showed that 56.94% had 2 myoma; 18.06% had 3; 25% had more than 4 fibroids in-situ. Only 3.41% showed calcific degeneration. Conclusion: While higher values have been obtained in Europe, the prevalence of myoma in this study is similar to that documented for other parts of South-Western Nigeria. Results showed the preponderance of solitary myoma both in pregnant and non-pregnant subjects. Findings also showed that increased uterine anteroposterior diameter is correlated with the existence of myoma and could serve as a predictive index for the presence of fibroid.
  4,437 423 -
Regression equations for the estimation of radial length from its morphometry in South-West Nigerian population
Ibeabuchi Nwachukwu Mike, Elijah Sunday Okon, Bello Azeez Olawale, Abidoye Toyin Emmanuel, Soyoye Temitope Priscilla, Raheem Sheriff Abolaji
July-December 2015, 14(2):51-56
DOI:10.4103/1596-2393.177017  
Background to the Study: Where natural or man-made disasters present bone fragments as it occur in forensic cases, regression equations derived from measurement of these bones fragments have been used to determine the length of the intact long bone. This study reports on the morphometry of the radius and the estimation of its length using regression equations in a Nigerian population. Methods: The maximum length of the radius was measured using an osteometric board. The distal breadth, sagittal diameter at mid-shaft, transverse diameter at mid-shaft (TDM), vertical radial head height (VRHH), maximum head diameter (Max. HD), and minimum head diameter (Min. HD) were measured using digital vernier caliper while the circumference of the radial head and the circumference at the radial tuberosity were measured using an anthropometric tape. Pearson correlation and Persian regression were used to derive the linear regression equations for the measured parameters that showed a correlation with the length of the radius. Result: Estimation of the length of the radius from the measures of Max. HD, VRHH, and TDM were achieved with relative accuracy. In deriving regression equations for the length of the radius of the right and left sides, irrespective of sides, the Max. HD and TDM were both significant in estimating the length of the radius; on the right side only the Max. HD exhibited significant correlation while on the left side, both the Max. HD and VRHH exhibited significant correlation. Conclusion: These findings may help in anthropometric, forensic, and archaeological investigation for the estimation of the stature of the remains of unknown bodies using regression equations and could serve as the basis of comparison for future studies in a Nigerian population.
  1,906 2,820 -
Presbyopia: Prevalence, distribution and determinants in Owerri, Nigeria
CG Emerole, O NneliR, EE Osim
January-June 2014, 13(1):21-25
DOI:10.4103/1596-2393.142927  
Background: Presbyopia causes blurring and impairment of vision at near. It is the most common physiologic change in the adult eye with advancing age. Good near vision is a necessity for domestic activities, office work and near vision tasks other than reading and writing, especially among adults in a resource-limited economy. The study determined the prevalence, distribution and determinants of presbyopia; presbyopic spectacle coverage; and provided data for ready-made near vision spectacles in Imo State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of three thousand, four hundred and fifty-one adults consisting of 2606 persons as study group and 845 persons as controls were randomly selected for the study. Structured questionnaire was administered to the subjects. Their visual acuity at far and near including tonometry, ophthalmoscopy, perimetry, retinoscopy and subjective refraction were done. Subjects who could not read N6 and emmetropes, who are 40 years and above were considered as presbyopic. Results: The prevalence of presbyopia was 70.9% and 75.0% of study and control groups respectively. Females aged 40-49 were in the majority (57.1% and 51.9% of females in the study and control groups respectively). Subjects requiring additions at near of ˃+1.50DS to 2.00DS were in the majority (39.0% and 46.4% of study and control groups respectively). Amongst the presbyopes 61.3% and 78.7% of study and control groups respectively did not have presbyopic correction. The subjects were also ignorant of corneal inlay technology in treatment of presbyopia. A higher prevalence exists among rural dwellers and the contributory factors were environmental influences, poor nutrition and irrational use of chloroquine for treatment of malaria. Conclusion: Over seventy-percent of presbyopia was found in this study. The determinants were age, gender, nutrition and drug use. Majority of the presbyopes were domicile in the rural area and did not have corrective spectacles. We recommend visual health education, regular vision screening and intervention to achieve the targets of vision 2020 in low-and-medium-income countries.
  4,284 362 -
Astigmatism: Prevalence, Distribution and Determinants in Owerri, Nigeria
CG Emerole, RO Nneli, EE Osim
July-December 2013, 12(2):87-91
DOI:10.4103/1596-2393.127970  
Background: Astigmatism impairs focusing ability of the eyes at far and near distances. This causes distortion, blurred vision, eye strain, headache, makes difficult visual tasks such as reading, driving (especially at night), focusing on the classroom board and computer screen. This study determined the prevalence, distribution and determinants of astigmatism in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria in order to establish a baseline data for the state. Materials and Methods: Three thousand, four hundred and fifty - one adults consisting of 2606 persons as test subjects and 845 persons as controls were randomly selected for the study. Structured - questionnaire was administered to the subjects and thereafter, the visual acuity at far and near including tonometry, ophthalmoscopy, perimetry, retinoscopy and subjective refraction were done. Astigmatic correction was prescribed in the minus cylinder format and astigmatism was defined as a cylindrical error less than -0.50 diopter cylinder in any axis. Astigmatism was classified by axis as with-the-rule (WTR), against-the-rule, and oblique astigmatism. Results: A prevalence of 20.9% and 22.5% of astigmatism was found in the study and control groups respectively. From the astigmatics, 59.4% and 61.1% of females in the study and control groups respectively (especially females aged 40-49) were mostly affected. WTR astigmatism of ≤1.00DC (P = 0.000) was statistically significant between study and control groups. A higher prevalence of astigmatism was found in subjects domiciled in the rural areas and caused by factors like environmental influences, poor nutrition and irrational first line drug use of chloroquine. Conclusion: To achieve the targets of vision 2020, we recommend periodic visual examination and health education on diet, drug use and safe environmental practises especially for people living in rural areas in low income economy like ours.
  4,107 320 1
A study of the variations of positions of vermiform appendix in appendicitis patients in Northern Ethiopia
Belta Asnakew Abegaz, Dawit Habte Woldeyes, Dereje Gizaw Awoke, Mengstu Desalegn Kiros
July-December 2016, 15(2):73-76
DOI:10.4103/1596-2393.200915  
Background: Vermiform appendix is a narrow, worm-shaped tube on the posteromedial side of the cecum near ileocecal junction. It has immunological function and shows a variation in position and length in individual from different countries. Knowledge of these variations is important during surgical interventions. Objectives: To assess the positions of appendix and its associations with age and sex of the patients. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted from 2013 to 2014 on 154 patients who underwent appendectomy in the University of Gondar; College of Medicine and Health Sciences Referral Hospital and Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital; Bahir Dar. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result: Retrocecal appendix was found to be the most common (72.73%), followed by pelvic (11.69%), preileal (10.39%), and subcecal (5.19%). Postileal position was not observed in this study. The association between age of the patients and the occurrence of appendicitis was statistically significant (P < 0.05) while the association between sex and position of appendix was not. Conclusion: This study noted the retrocecal position of the appendix to be the most common position. While statistically significant association was noted between age of the patients and the occurrence of appendicitis none was established between sex and position of appendix.
  2,263 2,031 -
Morphological changes of the human pinna in relation to age and gender of Urhobo people in Southern Nigeria
D.E.O. Eboh
July-December 2013, 12(2):68-74
DOI:10.4103/1596-2393.127964  
Introduction: The knowledge of anthropometry of normal human ear and symmetry is required for the timing of surgical reconstructions, when the contra lateral organ cannot be used as a template and for the design of hearing aid instruments. Ear prints have a potential for personal identification, and reference anthropometric data that consider age and sex related modifications are necessary. Purpose of the study: The purpose of this study was to measure the morphological length and width of the pinna and ear lobe among the Urhobo people of Southern Nigeria (aged 6 to 60 years). Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study adopted the multistage sampling technique. The study subjects comprised 368 Urhobo individuals (191 males and 177 females). Results: Total ear length, Ear width, Lobular length and Lobular width, were measured with digital vernier caliper (in millimeter) and recorded in a proforma. The mean total ear length, ear width, lobular length, and lobular width across the entire cohort for both left and right sides were 56.79 ± 4.26 mm, 30.47 ± 1.99mm, 15.36 ± 1.99mm and 16.12 ± 1.66mm respectively. Pearson's correlations between right and left sides in each of the parameters were positive and highly significant (P = 0.001). The effect of age on the parameters measured as analyzed with two-way factorial ANOVA showed statistical significance (P = 0.001) on both sides. The effect of gender on the parameters measured reached statistical significance only in the cases of lobular length on the right (P = 0.03) and lobular length on the left (P = 0.01); other parameters were not significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: This will be useful in surgery, forensic human identification and product designs.
  3,804 429 2
Substitution of cassava starch for polyvinyl alcohol in the histochemical stain for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in animal tissues
Edward O Uche-Nwachi, Camille Mitchell, Armaine Lord-Pope, Arol McEwen
July-December 2013, 12(2):37-41
DOI:10.4103/1596-2393.127946  
The histochemical localisation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) in tissues, using aqueous media is problematic because more than 90% of the activity of this enzyme is lost in the media, thereby giving a value that is much less than the real value. The gel method was tried to solve this problem but with little success. The improved method by Negi and Stephens, which incorporated 22% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in the incubation media, was an improvement in the histochemical demonstration of G-6-PD activity in tissues. In this investigation, we used 5% cassava starch, instead of PVA. Result showed improved localisation of the activity of G-6-PD in the liver and testis of Sprague Dawley rats which was statistically better than the Negi and Stephens' method. We conclude that cassava starch is a better, safer and cheaper substitute to PVA, in the localisation of the activity of G-6-PD in animal tissue.
  1,960 2,232 -
The effect of intake of palm wine on body weight and testicular microarchitecture in adult wistar rats
Ubi Essien Isaac, Frank Chinedu Akpuaka, Godwin Unukpai Ndukwe
January-June 2017, 16(1):12-17
DOI:10.4103/jeca.jeca_16_16  
Background: The growing concerns about male reproductive dysfunction as well as obesity have necessitated the present study. Objective: The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of intake of palm wine on body weight, testis weight and microarchitecture of the testis in adult Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Ten mature male rats weighing between 101 g and 180 g were assigned into two groups of A and B, consisting of five animals each that all had access to rat chow and water ad libitum. Fresh undiluted palm wine gotten as sap (juice) from oil palm trees was collected from a local palm wine tapper at every three days interval and often conserved in a refrigerator after every use before being replaced with a fresh collection on the 4th day. While group A served as control, group B animals were orally administered with 10ml/kg body weight per day of the palm wine for twenty-one days. The G&G(R) Electronic Scale (JJ1000 Capacity) was the instrument used for the assessment of the weight parameters. The analysis of variance was the statistical tool used to determine the weight differences between the two groups and P < 0.05 was taken as the statistically significant value; with the data presented as Mean ± SEM. Results: The outcome of the research on weight parameters showed non significant changes as the means for the initial and final body weights in group A were 108 g and 136 g ± 0.28 while those in group B were 138 g and 165 g ± 0.29 respectively. The testis mean weight of group A animals was 3.3 g ± 0.05 while that of group B was 3.8 g ± 0.07. Following routine histological processing, the micro-anatomic studies of testicular tissue samples from group B revealed focal disordered arrangement of sperm–producing cells. Conclusion: The findings therefore show that regular intake of fermented palm sap popularly known as palm wine may not significantly affect body weight nor testis weight, but can gradually distort testicular tissue architecture with abnormally structured cells.
  3,788 207 -
Prevalence, distribution and determinants of myopia in Owerri, Nigeria
CG Emerole, RO Nneli, EE Osim
July-December 2013, 12(2):57-61
DOI:10.4103/1596-2393.127962  
Background: Uncorrected myopia is a significant cause of visual impairment and avoidable blindness. Incidence of open-angle glaucoma has been shown to occur more often in myopia. This cross-sectional analytical study determined the prevalence, distribution and determinants of myopia in the adult population of Imo State, Nigeria with a view to establish a reference data for research purposes and future intervention in this locality. Materials and Method: A total of 3451 adults living in Owerri consisting of 2606 persons as test group and 845 persons as controls were randomly selected using standard optometric methods including subjective refraction. Results: Refractive error (ametropia) was found in 79.5% study and 76.8% control. Myopia was found in 23.4% study and 19.6% control. Highest prevalence of myopia was observed in females aged 40-49 years. Fifty percent of study and 68.1% of control group had myopia of -0.50DS to -3.00DS while 4.0% and 2.4% of study and control group respectively had myopic astigmatism. In all, 27.7% study and 16.2% control had myopia > 5.00DS. The highest degree of myopia found in this study was - 24.00DS. Conclusion: This study provided information on the prevalence, distribution and determinants of myopia in Owerri, Nigeria and the data could be a basis for improved visual health care in the south-eastern sub-region of Nigeria.
  3,504 310 -
Morphological evaluation of the superior colliculus of young Wistar rats following prenatal exposure to Carica papaya leaf extract
BU Enaibe, GO Omotoso, OJ Olajide, SF Lewu, SO Adeyemi
July-December 2014, 13(2):29-33
DOI:10.4103/1596-2393.154393  
Aim: This study was carried out to determine the effects of prenatal administration of Carica papaya on the superior colliculi (SC) of Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty adult female Wistar rats were mated and randomly assigned to 4 groups, each comprising of 5 rats. The aqueous leaf extract of C. papaya was prepared at a concentration of 100 mg/kg, and administered to rats on days 9 and 10 of gestation (Group A); days 16 and 17 (Group B); and on days 9, 10, 16 and 17 (Group C); while Group D represented the control, and received distilled water throughout gestation. The grouping was designed to represent 2 nd gestational week (Group A), 3 rd gestational week (Group B), and a combination of 2 nd and 3 rd gestational week (Group C). After the pregnant rats had littered, the pups were sacrificed on postnatal days 1, 14 and 35. The SCs was identified in the brain specimen and fixed in 10% formol calcium, and the tissue was processed for histological studies using hematoxylin and eosin stains. Results: The leaf extract of C. papaya was associated with low birth weight, changes in growth rate and morphological changes in the histology of SCs, especially in animals exposed during the 3 rd week of gestation. Conclusion: The use of C. papaya leaf extract during pregnancy is detrimental to fetal development and can affect the morphology and function of the SCs, with possible neurologic deficits after birth.
  1,573 1,814 -
Structural changes in pancreatic acinar cells and β-cells of rat fed with genetically modified corn
Fardous Soror Karawya, El Sayed Aly Mohamed Metwally
July-December 2016, 15(2):77-84
DOI:10.4103/1596-2393.200918  
Background: Genetically modified (GM) organisms have been an issue of intense public concern. Among the different GM organisms, GM plants have attracted a large amount of media attention. Corn used for food has been GM to resist glyphosate herbicide, insect resistance (Bt-corn), and vitamin-enriched corn with increase in β carotene, Vitamin C, and folate. As GM foods are starting to be present in our diet, concerns have been expressed regarding GM food safety. Aim of the Work: The aim was to assess the possible effects arising from GM corn on pancreatic acinar cells and β-cells. Materials and Methods: Twenty rats were divided equally into two groups. Group I (Control Group) received non-GM corn, Group II (The Experimental Group) fed with GM corn for 3 months. After 3 months, blood samples from all rats were collected for blood glucose estimation, and fresh specimens were taken from the pancreas and processed for light and transmission electron microscopic examination. Results: There was a significant increase of blood glucose level in rats fed with GM corn (Group II). Moreover, evident structural changes in the pancreatic acinar cell as evident by interstitial edema, irregular nuclei with dilated perinuclear space, dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum, vacuolation and lysosome-like lamellated structure, decreased electron-dense secretory granules, and formation of apoptotic bodies. Examination of β-cells revealed evident destruction and decreased secretory granules. Conclusion: A diet containing significant amounts of GM corn seems to influence zymogen synthesis in pancreatic acinar cells as well as β-cells function
  2,391 744 -
Protective effects of ethanolic extract of Mormodica charantia leaf on lead nitrate-induced bone marrow toxicity
Richard O Agbonluai Ehimigbai, Dorothea Baxter Grillo, Gerald Ikechi Eze, Vitalis Chukwuma Ezeuko
January-June 2015, 14(1):13-17
DOI:10.4103/1596-2393.158921  
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ethanolic extract of Mormodica charantia leaves on lead-induced toxicity on bone marrow. Materials and Methods: A total of 44 adult Wistar rats weighing between 180 g and 220 g were grouped into four groups of eleven rats per group. Animals in Group A (control group) were placed on normal diet for 40 days whereas Group B animals received only 300 mg/kg body weight/day of ethanolic extract of M. charantia for 40 days via orogastric tube. Group C animals received only 50 mg/kg body weight lead nitrate via orogastric tube for 40 days. Group D animals received 50 mg/kg body weight of lead nitrate and 300 mg/kg body weight/day of ethanolic extract of M. charantia for 40 days via orogastric tube. Results: The result showed that oral administration of lead nitrate at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight daily for 40 days significantly induced marked bone marrow injury as revealed by reduction in the activity of the serum erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, lymphocyte count, monocyte count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration . The extract also normalized erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, lymphocyte and monocyte count, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration while the neutrophil count level was decreased. Histologically, lead treated group showed increased fat vacuoles along with significant reduction in primordial blood cell inside bone marrow. Concurrent administration of both lead and the extract caused a restorative effect on the cytoarchictectural structure of the bone marrow. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study has shown that the ethanolic extract of M. charantia at 300 mg/kg body weight has an ameliorative effect on lead nitrate-induced bone marrow toxicity.
  2,627 361 -
Effects of albendazole administration on the testicular histology of adult Wistar rats
GO Omotoso, AS Alabi, AO Oyabambi
July-December 2013, 12(2):50-52
DOI:10.4103/1596-2393.127957  
Background: The testicular cytoarchitectural effects of albendazole administration were studied in adult Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were grouped into three groups, with six (6) rats per group. While animals in the control group A were given water, the treatment groups B and C received 15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg respectively of albendazole orally for three consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation about 24 hours after drug administration, and the testes removed, fixed in 10% formal saline and processed for histological consideration, using Haematoxylin and Eosin stains. Results: Varying degrees of histological changes were noticed in the seminiferous tubules, which were marked in the group that received the higher dose of the drug. Conclusion: These structural distortions and degenerations of testicular tissues that occurred after albendazole administration are dose-dependent, and could affect reproductive functions in males.
  2,636 275 1
A cadaveric study on morphological variations of fissures and lobes in the human lungs and its clinical significance
K Gopalakrishna, S Deepalaxmi, SC Somashekara, BS Rathna
January-June 2017, 16(1):7-11
DOI:10.4103/jeca.jeca_9_16  
Background: Knowledge of the anatomy and variations of the major fissures are essential to recognize pulmonary abnormalities, for segmental lung resection and radiological interpretations. Objective: To study the morphological variations of fissures and lobes in the human cadaveric lungs. Materials and Methods: One hundred specimens of formalin-fixed adult lungs of unknown gender were studied and the following parameters were measured bilaterally: (a) presence or absence of complete or incomplete fissure, (b) presence of accessory fissure, and (c) length of fissures. The observations and measurements were recorded, compiled, and tabulated and the result was compared with the other studies. Results: Length of oblique fissure was 29.36 ± 5.61cm with range of 17.9 - 42.0 cm on the right side and 26.81 ± 8.18 cm with range of 10.8–38.9 cm on the left side. Length of horizontal fissure was 10.2 ± 8.4 cm with range of 6.1–12.8 cm on the right side. Oblique fissure was complete in 84.0% cases on the right side and was in 82.0% cases on the right side. It was incomplete or absent in 16% (R) and 18% (L) cases. Horizontal fissure was complete in 74% and incomplete or absent in 26% of cases. Accessory fissure was found in a total of eight lung specimens. Conclusions: The knowledge of anatomy of fissures of the lung provides information on lobar anatomy with variations. The present study result and its comparison with other researches confirmed that lobar architecture is not constant. It emphasizes its usefulness in the diagnostic and surgical field.
  2,646 262 -
Extracts of Hunteria umbellata reverses the effect of streptozotocin-induced pancreatic islet-cell destruction
Oghenakogie I Momodu, AB Enogieru, Sylvester I Omoruyi, F. A. E. Om`Iniabohs
July-December 2014, 13(2):66-73
DOI:10.4103/1596-2393.154404  
The use of extracts of plant parts in the treatment and/or management of diabetes mellitus has formed the basis of health care in most African countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible effect of oral administration of extracts Hunteria umbellata (HU) leaves and seeds on streptozotocin- induced pancreatic β-cell damage. Twenty four (24) adult wistar rats were selected into two control group (negative control group A and positive control group B) and two treatment groups (C & D) each containing six animals each (n= 6 per group). Rats in the positive control group (B) were giving intraperitoneal injection of with 50 mg/kg body weight of Streptozotocin (STZ) prepared with 0.05M Citrate buffer solution while the negative control group A rats were injected with a corresponding volume of Citrate buffer without STZ. Rats in the treatment groups were treated with 250 mg/kg body weight aqueous extract of seeds of Hunteria umbellata (group C) and 250 mg/kg body weight aqueous extract of leaves of Hunteria umbellata (group D) respectively. Blood samples were taken by repeated needle puncture of their tail tip vein every 72 hours at the end of a 12 hrs fasting. Fasting blood glucose was determined using a fine test glucometer and compatible glucose test strips. Rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the 15 th day and the pancreas was accessed and dissected out through a midline incision of the anterior abdominal wall of the rats. The pancreas was fixed in 10% buffered formal saline for routine histological examination. 5ml blood samples were collected in heparin coated tubes for serum anti-oxidant estimation. Results obtained showed that HU seeds and leaves extracts significantly (P < 0.05) increased Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) activities and decrease in the activity of Thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) when compared streptozotocin injected rats. Histological sections showed marked distortion, vacoulation of the central part of the Islet. Treatment with Hunteria umbellata seed and leaf extracts reversed the cytoarchitectural distortion of pancreatic Islet cells caused by Streptozotocin. This suggests that extracts of HU seeds and leaves posses antidiabetic potential.
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Uvaria afzelii root extract protects the liver against damage caused by carbontetrachloride ingestion
Sylvester Ifeanyi Omoruyi, Madu Ifeoma Joan, Enogieru Adaze Bijou, Momodu Oghenakhogie Irobodu
July-December 2014, 13(2):40-44
DOI:10.4103/1596-2393.154396  
Introduction: Hepatoprotective activity of crude aqueous extract of Uvaria afzelii (UV) root was investigated and compared with a standard hepatoprotective drug (silymarin) in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into a control Group (A) and four treatment Groups (B-E) each containing five rats (n = 5/group). Animals in each group were allowed access to 200 g/day growers' mash and water ad libitum. Rats in the treatment groups were administered with intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml/kg body weight of 30% carbon tetrachloride (CCL 4 )/olive oil mixture every 72 h interval during the 15 days experimental period. Rats in Group B were not pretreated while Groups C, D and E rats were pretreated daily with 50 mg/kg body weight of silymarin, 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight of crude aqueous extract of UV root respectively. On the 15th day of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected to assay for serum liver enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as total protein (TP).The liver tissues were also excised and fixed in 10% buffered formal saline for routine histological examination. Result: The result obtained showed that UV root extract significantly (P < 0.05) decreased serum AST, ALT, ALP while TP was significantly (P < 0.05) increased when compared with nonpretreated rats administered with CCL 4 /olive oil and not significant (P < 0.05) when compared with silymarin pretreated rats. Histological observation of the liver of rats injected with CCL 4 /olive oil only showed vacuolation (presence of fat droplets), portal vein congestion, and moderate tissue separation. These observations were reduced in the liver of rats pretreated with UV root extract and silymarin. Conclusion: These findings indicate that root extract of UV possess hepatoprotective activity against Ingested hepatotoxic insults.
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POLICY ARTICLE
The laboratories of anatomy and the standard practices therein
Ahmad Adekilekun Tijani, Joshua Oladele Owolabi, Damilare Adedayo Adekomi
January-June 2017, 16(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/jeca.jeca_44_16  
A laboratory is a facility that is equipped for carrying out scientific experiments or procedures for the purposes of research, teaching, or analysis for service provision under controlled and optimal working conditions. Anatomy is the basic essential science of medicine, laboratories of anatomy are those facilities equipped for carrying out such scientific experiments to understand the structures and functions of human and animal bodies. The laboratories of anatomy, as generally required, for any conventional laboratory, do serve three known basic functions. Each could be a teaching, research, or service laboratory or perform two or three of the functions. Common laboratory units in the department of anatomy include anatomy museum and workshop, animal cell and tissue culture laboratory, biological anthropology and forensic anatomy laboratory, clinical embryology and andrology laboratory, cytogenetic laboratory, histology and histochemistry laboratory, mortuary and gross anatomy laboratory, and radiological anatomy laboratory.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effects of long-term consumption of energy drinks on the body and brain weights of adult Wistar rats
Josiah Obaghwarhievwo Adjene, Victor Emojevwe, David Eseoghene Idiapho
January-June 2014, 13(1):17-20
DOI:10.4103/1596-2393.142925  
Background: Effects of long-term consumption of energy drinks commonly used as flavored beverage drinks on the body and brain weights of adult Wistar rats was carefully studied. Materials and Methods: Twenty adult Wistar rats, with average weight of 200 g were randomly assigned into treatment (n = 10) and control (n = 10) groups. The rats in the treatment group received energy drinks and distilled water alternatively on a daily basis for 10 h and 14 h liberally for 30 days while the control group received distilled water liberally for the 30 days. The weight of the rats were measured daily during the period of the study. The rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the 31st day of the experiment, and the brain was carefully dissected out, weighed using Mettler Toledo weighing balance. The values obtained from the control and treatment groups were recorded and compared statistically using the unpaired sample t-test and symmetric measured test of the statistical package for social sciences. Results: The results of this experiment indicated that there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the body and brain weights (g), and a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in relative brain weight (%) of the treated animals with energy drinks as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Long-term consumption of energy drinks could, therefore, have adverse effects on the body and brain weights of adult Wistar rats. Recommendation: We suggest that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations in humans be carried out.
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Anatomical variations in the level of bifurcation of the sciatic nerve in Ethiopia
Mengstu Desalegn Kiros, Dawit Habte Woldeyes
January-June 2015, 14(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/1596-2393.158916  
Background: The sciatic nerve, the largest nerve in the body is derived from the sacral plexus. It is composed of tibial and common fibular nerves; the division of this nerve varies; it may occur within the pelvis, gluteal region, upper, mid and lower part of thigh. Injury of the nerve may lead to loss of sensation in posterior thigh, whole leg and foot. The anatomical variations of the level at which the sciatic nerve divides is considered important by clinicians during neuromuscular diagnosis and treatments of the lower limb. Objective: To determine the level of sciatic nerve bifurcation and its side symmetry. Materials and Methods: Observational based descriptive study was conducted to determine the variation of sciatic nerve level of bifurcation on 25 human preserved cadavers. The data were analyzed manually using numbers, frequencies and percentages. Results: The findings of this study states that in 4 limbs (8%), the nerve divided in the pelvis region; in 2 limbs (4%), in the gluteal region; in 12 limbs (24%), at upper, middle and lower part of the posterior. The highest incidence of division occurs in 32 limbs (64%) in the popliteal fossa; in addition 8 (32%) of the 25 cadavers were asymmetrical between right and left sides. Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that the majority of sciatic nerve divisions occur in the popliteal fossa while some divided into other regions such as pelvis, gluteal and thigh regions.
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