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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2013| July-December  | Volume 12 | Issue 2  
    Online since February 27, 2014

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Morphological changes of the human pinna in relation to age and gender of Urhobo people in Southern Nigeria
D.E.O. Eboh
July-December 2013, 12(2):68-74
Introduction: The knowledge of anthropometry of normal human ear and symmetry is required for the timing of surgical reconstructions, when the contra lateral organ cannot be used as a template and for the design of hearing aid instruments. Ear prints have a potential for personal identification, and reference anthropometric data that consider age and sex related modifications are necessary. Purpose of the study: The purpose of this study was to measure the morphological length and width of the pinna and ear lobe among the Urhobo people of Southern Nigeria (aged 6 to 60 years). Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study adopted the multistage sampling technique. The study subjects comprised 368 Urhobo individuals (191 males and 177 females). Results: Total ear length, Ear width, Lobular length and Lobular width, were measured with digital vernier caliper (in millimeter) and recorded in a proforma. The mean total ear length, ear width, lobular length, and lobular width across the entire cohort for both left and right sides were 56.79 ± 4.26 mm, 30.47 ± 1.99mm, 15.36 ± 1.99mm and 16.12 ± 1.66mm respectively. Pearson's correlations between right and left sides in each of the parameters were positive and highly significant (P = 0.001). The effect of age on the parameters measured as analyzed with two-way factorial ANOVA showed statistical significance (P = 0.001) on both sides. The effect of gender on the parameters measured reached statistical significance only in the cases of lobular length on the right (P = 0.03) and lobular length on the left (P = 0.01); other parameters were not significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: This will be useful in surgery, forensic human identification and product designs.
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Effects of amlodipine besylate on testicular histology, sperm cells count, morphology and motility in adult male Wistar rats
Adelaja Akinlolu, Olaide Ghazal, Kayode Lewu, Fatai Babatope, Ibrahim Huthman, Adebayo Adefule
July-December 2013, 12(2):75-81
Aims/Introduction: Amlodipine besylate (5 or 10 mg daily) is a long-acting calcium-channel blocker used in men for the treatment of hypertension and angina. This study tested the hypothesis that administration of amlodipine besylate impairs fertility in adult male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine normotensive adult male Wistar rats (weighing 150-250 g) were employed in the study. Rats of Control Group I received physiological saline while rats of experimental Groups II-VI received 5, 10, 15, 20 and 40 mg/kg BW of amlodipine besylate respectively for 56 to 65 days. Results: Histological analyses showed dose-dependent anomalies of the testes such as scanty seminiferous tubules, wider tubular lumen and significantly reduced sperm cells in rats that received 20 and 40 mg/kg BW of amlodipine besylate. Dose-dependent anomalies of sperm morphology such as sperms with arrow or pin head and double tail as well as significantly reduced sperm cells count and motility ( P ≤ 0.05) were observed in rats of the experimental groups. Conclusion: This study observed impaired fertility in adult male rats treated with 15 mg/kg BW and higher doses of amlodipine besylate.
  1 11,784 466
Astigmatism: Prevalence, Distribution and Determinants in Owerri, Nigeria
CG Emerole, RO Nneli, EE Osim
July-December 2013, 12(2):87-91
Background: Astigmatism impairs focusing ability of the eyes at far and near distances. This causes distortion, blurred vision, eye strain, headache, makes difficult visual tasks such as reading, driving (especially at night), focusing on the classroom board and computer screen. This study determined the prevalence, distribution and determinants of astigmatism in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria in order to establish a baseline data for the state. Materials and Methods: Three thousand, four hundred and fifty - one adults consisting of 2606 persons as test subjects and 845 persons as controls were randomly selected for the study. Structured - questionnaire was administered to the subjects and thereafter, the visual acuity at far and near including tonometry, ophthalmoscopy, perimetry, retinoscopy and subjective refraction were done. Astigmatic correction was prescribed in the minus cylinder format and astigmatism was defined as a cylindrical error less than -0.50 diopter cylinder in any axis. Astigmatism was classified by axis as with-the-rule (WTR), against-the-rule, and oblique astigmatism. Results: A prevalence of 20.9% and 22.5% of astigmatism was found in the study and control groups respectively. From the astigmatics, 59.4% and 61.1% of females in the study and control groups respectively (especially females aged 40-49) were mostly affected. WTR astigmatism of ≤1.00DC (P = 0.000) was statistically significant between study and control groups. A higher prevalence of astigmatism was found in subjects domiciled in the rural areas and caused by factors like environmental influences, poor nutrition and irrational first line drug use of chloroquine. Conclusion: To achieve the targets of vision 2020, we recommend periodic visual examination and health education on diet, drug use and safe environmental practises especially for people living in rural areas in low income economy like ours.
  1 5,444 448
Nutritional evaluation using different anthropometric variables in Nigerian school children
AO Ibegbu, David E Tosin, WO Hamman, UE Umana, SA Musa
July-December 2013, 12(2):42-49
The anthropometric characteristics of 600 apparently healthy children of ages between 5 and 10 years of Gbagyi tribe of Abuja Nigeria, consisting of males (n = 300) with a mean age of 7.10 ΁ 1.98 and females (n = 300) with a mean age of 7.68 ΁ 1.86 were selected for the evaluation of their nutritional status using different anthropometric variables. The anthropometric characteristic of their height, age, weight, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), chest circumference and body mass index (BMI) was measured and analysed statistically for any significant difference, and correlation between the parameters studied. The results show some significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) between the anthropometric parameters and a significant correlation (≤0.001) between the height and BMI, and other parameters in males and females. The study derived a linear regression and a multiple linear regression equations for Gbagyi children from which height, age, weight, MUAC, chest circumference and BMI could be predicted if one factor is known. The results from the present study provided an insight into the nutritional status of Nigerian school children of Gbagyi tribe of Abuja using the BMI and MUAC which showed if a child is malnourished, overweight or obese. The results from the present study show that there is a positive correlation between height and age, and other parameters indicating that height could be predicted using age, weight, BMI, chest circumference and MUAC, while BMI and mid upper arm circumference could be a useful tool in the estimation of nutritional status among Nigerian school children of Gbagyi tribe of Abuja.
  1 6,582 1,841
Effects of albendazole administration on the testicular histology of adult Wistar rats
GO Omotoso, AS Alabi, AO Oyabambi
July-December 2013, 12(2):50-52
Background: The testicular cytoarchitectural effects of albendazole administration were studied in adult Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were grouped into three groups, with six (6) rats per group. While animals in the control group A were given water, the treatment groups B and C received 15 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg respectively of albendazole orally for three consecutive days. The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation about 24 hours after drug administration, and the testes removed, fixed in 10% formal saline and processed for histological consideration, using Haematoxylin and Eosin stains. Results: Varying degrees of histological changes were noticed in the seminiferous tubules, which were marked in the group that received the higher dose of the drug. Conclusion: These structural distortions and degenerations of testicular tissues that occurred after albendazole administration are dose-dependent, and could affect reproductive functions in males.
  1 3,694 353
Prevalence, distribution and determinants of myopia in Owerri, Nigeria
CG Emerole, RO Nneli, EE Osim
July-December 2013, 12(2):57-61
Background: Uncorrected myopia is a significant cause of visual impairment and avoidable blindness. Incidence of open-angle glaucoma has been shown to occur more often in myopia. This cross-sectional analytical study determined the prevalence, distribution and determinants of myopia in the adult population of Imo State, Nigeria with a view to establish a reference data for research purposes and future intervention in this locality. Materials and Method: A total of 3451 adults living in Owerri consisting of 2606 persons as test group and 845 persons as controls were randomly selected using standard optometric methods including subjective refraction. Results: Refractive error (ametropia) was found in 79.5% study and 76.8% control. Myopia was found in 23.4% study and 19.6% control. Highest prevalence of myopia was observed in females aged 40-49 years. Fifty percent of study and 68.1% of control group had myopia of -0.50DS to -3.00DS while 4.0% and 2.4% of study and control group respectively had myopic astigmatism. In all, 27.7% study and 16.2% control had myopia > 5.00DS. The highest degree of myopia found in this study was - 24.00DS. Conclusion: This study provided information on the prevalence, distribution and determinants of myopia in Owerri, Nigeria and the data could be a basis for improved visual health care in the south-eastern sub-region of Nigeria.
  1 4,483 389
Effects of vitamin E administration on phostoxin-induced changes in the kidney of adult Wistar rats
AO Ibegbu, AO Babatunde, AT Alatise, SJ Dassah, UE Umana, WO Hamman, SA Musa
July-December 2013, 12(2):62-67
Aim: The effect of vitamin E on phostoxin-induced changes in biochemical parameters and the kidney of adult Wistar rats were studied. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult Wistar rats of both sexes were randomly separated into six groups of five rats each. Group 1 was the Control and was given normal saline. Group 2 was exposed to phostoxin for 3 hours per day with vitamin E and Group 3 was exposed to phostoxin for 1΍ hours with vitamin E. Groups 4 and 5 were treated with phostoxin only on exposure time of 1΍ and 3 hours respectively while Group 6 was treated with vitamin E only. The rats were exposed to phostoxin through inhalational method for 7 days and at the end of the exposure period, the rats were sacrificed. The blood and tissues were collected for analysis and were processed for histological studies. Results: The results showed significant changes in body weight of the rats (P < 0.05) while there was a significant increase in weight of the kidneys in Groups 3 and 6 when compared to the Control (P < 0.05). The results of the biochemical parameters Na + , K + , Cl, urea, creatinine and HCO3 showed a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the control and the experimental groups. The results of histological examination of the kidney showed changes in animals exposed to phostoxin when compared to the Control animals. Conclusion: The changes in the kidney depend on the duration of the exposure time while vitamin E administration has been shown to have some level of protection on phostoxin-induced toxicity on the kidney tissues and biochemical parameters of the adult Wistar rats.
  1 1,967 218
Contribution of musculocutaneous nerve in the formation of median nerve
GE Anyanwu, AU Agu, CO Maduka, EA Esom, OJ Ezugworie, FN Ozoemena
July-December 2013, 12(2):92-94
The median nerve is formed by the union of the lateral and medial roots of median nerve. The musculocutaneous nerve is the terminal branch of the lateral cord of the brachial plexus. There are documented variations in the origins, courses and distributions of these nerves. On routine dissection of an embalmed adult Nigerian male cadaver, the musculocutaneous nerve of the left side was observed to give a contribution/communication in the formation of median nerve after both roots of median nerve have united. The right side of the brachial plexus was examined and the course and distribution of the musculocutaneous and median nerves were found to be without any communication. Variations in the origins and distributions of the brachial plexus had been documented by previous researchers. The communications between median and musculocutaneous nerves were noted to occur in different types and patterns with respect to coracobrachialis muscle. There are known variations in the formation of median nerve. Knowledge of these variations is important to the anatomist, surgeon, neurologist and anaesthetist as injury proximal to the point of communication may give rise to variable clinical presentations and manifestations.
  - 2,172 161
Fingerprint patterns in relation to gender and blood group among students of Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria
Dennis E.O. Eboh
July-December 2013, 12(2):82-86
Introduction: Fingerprint patterns are genotypically determined and remain unchanged from birth till death. Purpose of the study: The purpose of this study was to determine fingerprint patterns in relation to gender and blood group among students of Delta state University, Abraka, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A total of 490 subjects, aged 17-30 years were drawn using the systematic random sampling technique. The blood group of each subject was obtained from the records in the medical laboratory register of the Health Centre of the University. Results: Fingerprints of each subject were obtained using endorsing ink and plain white paper. Female had higher percentage of loop and whorl while male had higher percentage of arch. There was no significant association between gender and finger print patterns. Within the respective ABO blood groups, loop had higher percentages compared to arch and whorl. There was no significant association between finger print patterns and ABO blood group. Within the respective Rhesus blood groups, loop had higher percentages compared to arch and whorl. There was significant association between finger print patterns and Rhesus blood group. Within the respective ABO-Rhesus blood groups, loop had higher percentages compared to arch and whorl, except in blood group O negative where whorl has higher percentage. There was significant association between finger print patterns and ABO-Rhesus blood group. Conclusion: The study showed that fingerprints, gender and ABO blood groups can only be used independently to identify an individual.
  - 6,914 829
Hormonal assays following oral administration of bonny light crude oil on male wistar rats
Victor A Fischer, Christie E Fischer, Mfon Akpaso, Oladapo A Ashiru
July-December 2013, 12(2):53-56
Introduction: Crude oil is composed of a wide range of chemicals and its hydrocarbon content differs widely depending on the location and source. Bonny light crude oil (BLCO) is Nigeria's marker crude oil with a low sulfur content and low corrosive property. The effect of BLCO on the serum levels of reproductive hormones was evaluated in male Wistar rats. Methodology: Seventy-five (75) male Wistar rats weighing between 150 and 200 g were divided into five groups A, B, C, D and E consisting of 15 animals. Groups A-D served as the experimental groups and Group E served as the control that received normal saline. 0.5, 1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 ml/kg bw of BLCO was administered to the experimental animals in Groups A, B, C and D respectively via oral gastric intubation once on alternate days for 60 days. The animals were sacrificed and blood was collected via cardiac puncture, centrifuged and the serum was collected for hormonal assay using the enzyme-linked immuno-absorbent assay (ELISA) method. Results: There were significant (P < 0.05) higher serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in the treatment groups particularly in the 2.5 and 3.5 ml/kg bw groups when compared with the control. There was also a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the serum testosterone hormone (TH) level in the treatment groups. The effects were observed to be dose dependent. Conclusion: BLCO has significant effects on the serum levels of LH, FSH and TH of male Wistar rats and the effect may be at the level of the testis.
  - 2,646 245
Substitution of cassava starch for polyvinyl alcohol in the histochemical stain for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in animal tissues
Edward O Uche-Nwachi, Camille Mitchell, Armaine Lord-Pope, Arol McEwen
July-December 2013, 12(2):37-41
The histochemical localisation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) in tissues, using aqueous media is problematic because more than 90% of the activity of this enzyme is lost in the media, thereby giving a value that is much less than the real value. The gel method was tried to solve this problem but with little success. The improved method by Negi and Stephens, which incorporated 22% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in the incubation media, was an improvement in the histochemical demonstration of G-6-PD activity in tissues. In this investigation, we used 5% cassava starch, instead of PVA. Result showed improved localisation of the activity of G-6-PD in the liver and testis of Sprague Dawley rats which was statistically better than the Negi and Stephens' method. We conclude that cassava starch is a better, safer and cheaper substitute to PVA, in the localisation of the activity of G-6-PD in animal tissue.
  - 2,500 3,296