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   2017| July-December  | Volume 16 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 4, 2018

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Family background and age at menarche among secondary schoolgirls in Nigeria
Monday Nwankwo, Barnabas Danborno, Hamman Wilson Oliver
July-December 2017, 16(2):77-82
BACKGROUND: Menarche signifies the onset of menstruation and is one of the milestones in women's lives. AIM: The aim of the present study was to elucidate the influence of birth order, family size, parents' level of education, and body size parameters on age at menarche among samples of Nigerian secondary schoolgirls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of age at menarche of Nigerian secondary schoolgirls (n = 600) aged 11–18 years was done. The effect of birth order, family size, and parents' educational attainment on age at menarche was analyzed. Data pertaining to menarche and family background were collected using a self-administered structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 22. RESULTS: Mean age at menarche was 13.54 ± 0.90 years. Father's level of education showed statistical significant effect on the mean age at menarche (P < 0.05), while mother's level of education did not show significant influence on the mean age at menarche (P > 0.05). The result showed that firstborn girls have earlier age at menarche (12.82 ± 0.68 years) than later-born girls (14.09 ± 0.58 years, P < 0.01). Again, girls born in small families of one child, reach maturity earlier (12.78 ± 0.57 years), than those born in families of four or more children (14.02 ± 0.68 years, P < 0.01). Linear regression model using birth order and family size was used to ascertain the mean age of menarche for the overall sample population. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that birth order, family size, and parents' level of education have influence on age at menarche.
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African mistletoe (Loranthaceae) ameliorates cholesterol-induced motor deficit and oxidative stress in adult BALB/c mice
Ademola A Oremosu, Edem Ekpenyong Edem, Olufunke O Dosumu, AA Osuntoki
July-December 2017, 16(2):121-126
INTRODUCTION: Disturbances in cholesterol homeostasis can influence neuronal cell membranes and induce oxidative stress, which can impact motor function. African mistletoe (Loranthaceae) is a hemiparasitic plant which has been employed in the treatment and management of several ailments including strokes and epilepsies. AIM: This study was undertaken to determine the ameliorative effect of African mistletoe in cholesterol-induced motor deficit in BALB/c mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty mice were used for this study. They were divided into four groups, namely, control, experimental, extract, and treatment. The motor deficit was established by feeding the mice with a diet enriched with 2% cholesterol for 8 weeks. Mice were subsequently treated with a mistletoe methanolic extract preparation through oral administration (200 mg/kg daily for 2 weeks) or with normal saline (0.5 ml) as a control. Data were expressed as a mean ± standard error of the mean; P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 (level of significance). RESULTS: The high cholesterol diet (HCD) induced a statistically significant motor deficit when compared to the other groups. After 8 weeks of HCD feeding, histological results showed remarkable structural disruptions in the corpus striatum and the cerebellar cortex of the BALB/c mice. Administration of 200 mg/kg of methanolic extract of mistletoe ameliorated histomorphological distortion produced by the chronic exposure to an HCD. CONCLUSION: The study findings have revealed that chronic exposure to a HCD can impact the motor neural systems and their functions, and treatment with methanolic extract of African mistletoe improves motor function in BALB/c mice.
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Assessing students' knowledge of subdisciplines in Anatomy
Abimbola O Ebeye, John Chukwuma Oyem, Vincent N Onwochei-Bolum
July-December 2017, 16(2):83-86
CONTEXT: In recent times, the knowledge of anatomy has been broadened to a wide range of subdisciplines such as forensic science, sports medicine, and medical genetics. Despite these recent trends, anatomy undergraduates are faced with challenges of areas of specialization and limited or no job placement for a degree in anatomy. AIM: This study was therefore aimed at assessing the students' knowledge of subdisciplines in Anatomy. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This study was a cross-sectional survey study that involved the use of questionnaires and was carried out in Delta State University Abraka and University of Benin, Benin City. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two-hundred and ninety-seven semistructured, close-ended questionnaires were administered to Delta State University Abraka and University of Benin undergraduates, from whom due consents have been obtained to fill. Respondents' sociodemographic factors, university levels, and awareness of the various subspecialties in Anatomy were recorded. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The results obtained are presented in simple percentages and frequencies, with illustrations represented in tables and figures. RESULTS: The study recorded the highest percentage in Histochemistry and Histology which accounted for 14.06%. This was followed by Clinical Embryology, Cellular and Molecular Biology, Mortuary Science, and Neuroscience which constituted 13.71%, 12.49%, 11.73%, and 11.38%, respectively. Lower percentages were recorded in Comparative Anatomy (8.80%), Biometrics and Forensic Biology (9.00%), and Clinical Genetics (9.81%). It further showed the lowest percentages in Sports Science and Bioanthropology which constituted 3.74% and 5.20%, respectively. The findings from this study also showed no differences between males and females as to who is more interested in Anatomy. Furthermore, results from the mode of admission showed that a higher percentage of students were admitted by chance (56.6%) than by choice (43.4%). CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that students have an adequate knowledge of subdisciplines introduced during their course of study but lacked adequate knowledge in some major career prospects in Anatomy.
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Relationship of second-to-fourth digit ratio with metabolic syndrome indices and serum biomarkers in Hausa ethnic group of Kano, Nigeria
Abdullahi Yusuf Asuku, Barnabas Danborno, Shehu Abubakar Akuyam, James Abrak Timbuak, Lawan Hassan Adamu
July-December 2017, 16(2):103-110
BACKGROUND: High prevalence levels of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in developed and developing countries and the associated high mortality and morbidity are forcing scientists to explore promising therapeutic agents and population-specific anthropometric criteria for defining its phenotype. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between digit length and second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) with the indices of MetS and its serum biomarkers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional study which included 465 (266 males and 199 females) Hausas of Kano, with a mean age of 34.4 years and 32.0 years for males and females, respectively. Systematic random sampling technique was employed for subject recruitment. Height, weight, waist circumference, body mass index, and digit lengths were obtained using standard protocol. Overnight fasting blood sample was obtained for fasting blood glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, uric acid, and adiponectin estimation using standard laboratory protocols. Blood pressure was measured following standard clinical procedure. Pearson's correlation was used to test the association between the digit lengths, 2D:4D with MetS indices, uric acid, and adiponectin. To compare between-group parameters of males and females, left and right hand, Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA were used. SPSS version 20 software was used for statistical analyses and P < 0.05 was set as level of significance. RESULTS: 2D:4D showed significant positive correlation with uric acid, blood pressure, and serum parameters of MetS. A negative correlation was observed between 2D:4D, adiponectin, and HDL. In both sexes, the R2D:4D had stronger correlation with MetS indicators when compared with the L2D:4D. CONCLUSION: 2D:4D is good correlate of metabolic risk parameters and R2D:4D correlates better than L2D:4D.
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Gender-and age-related differences in anthropometric and body composition parameters in Nigerians, Zaria, Nigeria
Shakirat Yetunde Amoo-Tella, Barnabas S Danborno, Shehu Akuyam, Samuel S Adebisi
July-December 2017, 16(2):137-146
BACKGROUND: Body composition refers to the constituent of the body, namely, lean mass, fat mass, and water. It serves as a great diagnostic value and a sensitive indicator of an individual's health and nutritional status. AIM: The aim of the study is to determine the age-related difference in anthropometric and body composition parameters in indigenes of Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1200 participants, 578 males and 622 females, between ages of 7–60 years were selected randomly to participate in the study. The participants were divided into three age groups based on their ages; children (7–12 years), adolescents (13–17 years), and adults (18–60 years). Weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, abdominal circumference, upper arm circumference, % body fat, triceps and iliac skinfold thicknesses were measured in all participants. RESULTS: All the anthropometric parameters measured increased significantly across the three age groups and in both males and females across the three age groups. Some of the anthropometric parameters showed significant difference in both sexes in the children, adolescents and adults age group. Percentage body fat also increases across the three age groups and in both sexes in each age group. All the parameters were significantly higher in the females than in the males. CONCLUSION: Age and gender brings about significant differences in anthropometric and body composition parameters in individuals.
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Antioxidants: A therapy for cryptorchidism, true or false?
Ademola A Oremosu, Olajumoke G Osumah, Edidiong N Akang
July-December 2017, 16(2):87-92
BACKGROUND: Cryptorchidism remains a common congenital anomaly of the male genitalia, affecting 2.4%–5% of male infants. AIM: This study investigates the effects of L-carnitine (LC), Biotin, and Vitamin D3 (Vit D) on the cryptorchid testis in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five adult male SD rats were divided into 5 groups of 5 each. The right testis of all rats was made cryptorchid. Group A received distilled water, Group B received LC, Group C received biotin, and Group D received Vit D while Group E received a cocktail of LC, Biotin, and Vit D. At the end 8 weeks, the animals were euthanized, and vital organs obtained, processed, and analyzed. RESULTS: The testis of the untreated animals had marked depletion in the cells of the seminiferous tubules compared to those treated with antioxidants. They also had upregulated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) which was inversely proportional to the levels of antioxidant enzymes. Epididymal sperm quality and testosterone level were also reduced in the untreated cryptorchid animals. These effects were, however, mitigated by the use of the antioxidants. CONCLUSION: In this study, antioxidant therapy acted as a panacea for reversal of reactive oxygen species-induced male infertility in cryptorchid testis in SD rats. Further studies on antioxidants in comparison with hormonal supplements and surgical treatments of cryptorchid testis will be of great significance.
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Role of gamma-aminobutyric acid ergic activation in pathology of −dopamine-2 receptors model of Parkinsonism in mice
Azeez Olakunle Ishola, Oladimeji Ogungbemi, Zaynab Abdulmalik, Ololade Boluwatife Faniran, Edem Ekpenyong Edem, Philip Adeyemi Adeniyi, Moyosore Salihu Ajao, Ogundele Olalekan Michael
July-December 2017, 16(2):93-102
BACKGROUND: Blocking of dopamine-2 receptors (D2R) in the brain showed motor symptoms seen in Parkinsonism. Since D2R is excitatory in the brain and blocking it is like inhibition. This work is designed to show if activating gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) system in the brain contributes to the pathogenesis of Parkinsonism seen in–D2R model of Parkinsonism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty male adult albino mice were randomly divided into four groups (Veh, −D2R, +GABA, and −D2R + GABA). Veh. animals were given 0.04 mL of normal saline, −D2R were given 10 mg/kg body weight (BW) of haloperidol for 14 days, +GABA were given 10 mg/kg BW of diazepam for 7 days and −D2R + GABA were given 10 mg/kg BW of haloperidol for 14 days with subsequent 10 mg/kg BW of diazepam for 7 days. Each group contains 5 animals and all treatment was done intraperitoneally. Motor activity of the animals was assessed using rotarod, Y-maze for spatial memory and elevated plus maze for anxiety and locomotion. At the end of treatment, the animals were anesthetized using ketamine and perfused transcardially with formal saline. Brains were then excised and fixed in formal saline. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus were processed for histological study using hematoxylin and eosin stain and immunohistochemistry for Lewy bodies. Data were expressed as mean ± standard error of mean and analyzed using analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc test significant level was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: Motor activity was significantly reduced in all treated groups (−D2R, +GABA and −D2R/+GABA) compared to the control (Veh) as they all have lower latency of fall and arm entries. Y-maze result shows that spatial memory was significantly reduced in –D2R and −D2R/+GABA groups but not + GABA. Anxiety-related behavior was high in all treated groups compared to control. Cellular distortion was observed in the PFC and hippocampus of all treated groups with −D2R/+GABA group having a high level of distortion. Lewy bodies accumulation was absent in the brain regions observed from all the groups. CONCLUSIONS: GABAergic activation aids motor and memory deficit and marked brain pathology in −D2R model of Parkinsonism.
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A study of sagittal pelvic diameters and their variations with advancing age in Gujarati female population by reformatted computed tomography
Ritesh K Shah, Jalpa N Desai, Ajay R Upadhyay, Bharat G Patel
July-December 2017, 16(2):132-136
CONTEXT: Pelvic diameters are found to be race and age dependent. Gradual horizontalization of sacrum with the advancement of age causes changes in the sagittal pelvic diameters. AIMS: The aim of the present study is to derive values of sagittal pelvic diameters in Gujarati females, analyze these data to find out changes with regard to the age, and compare the same with other studies. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was an observational, retrospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 stored abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) scan images were used for the present study. Pelvic parameters were analyzed on reformatted three-dimensional CT images. Sagittal diameters of inlets including anatomical, obstetric, and diagonal conjugate and at level of the pelvic cavity and pelvic outlet were measured. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Medcalc version 14 was used for statistical analysis. Data were compared and analyzed to determine the significance of difference between the two age groups. RESULTS: Mean ± standard deviation of anatomical conjugate was 11.07 ± 1.12 cm, obstetric conjugate was 11.00 ± 1.13 cm, diagonal conjugate was 12.04 ± 1.05 cm, pelvic cavity was 11.53 ± 0.86 cm, outlet at the level of lower end of sacrum was 10.56 ± 0.82 cm, and outlet at the level of tip of coccyx was 8.97 ± 0.99 cm. These parameters analyzed with regard to the age showed that the sagittal diameters at level of inlet decrease with increasing age and at level of cavity and outlet increase with increasing age. CONCLUSIONS: The present study concluded that various sagittal pelvic diameters vary in different races and populations. All the sagittal pelvic diameters show changes with increase in age, but changes in pelvic inlet diameters are found to be more significant.
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A regression analysis to determine personal stature from craniofacial parameters of idoma tribe in Nigeria
Sunday Godwin Obaje, AO Ibegbu, WO Hamman, AK Waitieh-Kabehl
July-December 2017, 16(2):116-120
BACKGROUND: Stature reconstruction from skeletal remains forms part of forensic investigations in anthropology for the purpose of individual identifications. Despite a growing number of forensic cases in Idomaland, a very little work has been done to document stature estimation among modern Idoma people. AIM: This study aimed to determine stature from anthropometric parameters and generate a regression model among Idoma tribe in Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 300 healthy individuals of Idoma tribe were randomly selected. Out of which, 155 males and 145 females aged 15–18 years from Methodist High Schools in Otukpo participated in the study. Measurements were taken with the help of standard instruments. Stature and six parameters (head length, head width, bizygomatic distance, nasal length, nasal width, and facial height) were determined to the nearest centimeters. RESULTS: The nasal width was higher in males than females. In addition, the nasal length was higher in males than females while bizygomatic distance was close in values among both sexes with a significance level of P < 0.05. Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression equations were derived for male and females separately for all individuals in the study group. Stature was higher in males than females in perfect distribution (174.38 and 156.35, respectively). The facial height was higher in males than females (11.57 and 11.00, respectively). Although it was not significant (P < 0.05), the parameter expressed a higher value. The simple Pearson's correlation (r) was high in bizygomatic distance and low in nasal width (r = 0.28 and 0.05, respectively) of males, while nasal width was low (r = 0.12) and head width was high (r = 0.38) in females. There was a statistically significant level in head length for both males and females (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Facial height, nasal length, and bizygomatic distance had statistically significant weak positive correlation with stature for both Idoma males and females. Human stature cannot be predicted from cephalofacial variables.
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Regression equations for estimating stature from anthropometric measurements of foot length and breadth in adults of efik ethnic group in cross river state
Rademene S Oria, Anozeng O Igiri, Abang O Mathias, Nandi E Michael
July-December 2017, 16(2):127-131
INTRODUCTION: Estimation of stature is an important factor in forensic studies and occupies a foremost position in anthropometric research. The aim of the present work was to determine the reliability of foot dimensions in estimating stature in adult of Efik ethnicity in Cross River State. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The individuals comprised of 600 adult indigenes (300 males and 300 females) of Efi k ethnic group in Cross River State between the ages of 18–45 years. Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation, and Regression analysis were used to estimate the stature in the study population. RESULTS: Our results showed that stature in males had a mean value of 165.40 cm, whereas in females, it was 161.67 cm. More so, foot dimensions studied showed sexual dimorphism. Foot length in male individuals was 25.30 cm, while in females, foot length measured was 23.48 cm. Furthermore, the mean foot breadth in males was 9.20 cm, while in females, foot breadth was 8.37 cm. Statistical analysis revealed that the difference in foot length and foot breadth between males and females was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Furthermore, a positive correlation coefficient was observed between the foot dimensions measured and stature in both sexes. CONCLUSION: Regression equations formulated showed that foot breadth was a better predictor of stature in males while foot length was more reliable in predicting stature in females of Efik descent. These findings will be of immense benefit to physical anthropology and forensic studies Kteuydwieos rodfs t:he study environment.
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Unilateral absence of short head of the biceps brachii in human cadaver: A case study
Safeer Khan, Sanjib Das, Vishal Surender, Venkatesh Bheemaia, Vivek R Joshi
July-December 2017, 16(2):147-149
Anatomical variation in the head of biceps brachii is well documented in various studies in the past. As for our best knowledge with the previous publication, there are so many journals reported with multiple variation including accessory heads of biceps brachii muscle (BBM), but the absence of one head of BBM in unilateral arm is very rare. The proximal tendons of the biceps brachii are commonly involved in pathological processes and are a frequent cause of anterior shoulder pain. Disorders of the distal biceps brachii tendon typically result from partial and complete tears of the muscle. Partial tears are usually characterized by enlargement and abnormal contour of the tendon. The purpose of this study was to find some rare kind of variations in the head of biceps brachii with future enlightenment in its potential effects in the normal functioning of upper limb. In the present study, we found that absence of one head of BBM in unilateral arm of one cadaver during anatomical dissection at Windsor University School of Medicine, Brightons Estate, Cayon, P. O. Box-1621, St. Kitts and Nevis, West Indies. Strong evidence of the absence of one head of BBM may be suggestive of developmental anomaly or physical degeneration of the muscle which may lead to complete or partial dysfunction of the region (Szpinda, et al. 2013). However, further studies can reveal the real case of it.
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Dose-dependent quinine toxicity of intracranial auditory relay centre (inferior colliculus) in male albino Wistar rats is reversible
Idorenyin U Umoh, Theresa B Ekanem
July-December 2017, 16(2):111-115
BACKGROUND: The toxicity of quinine treatment on intracranial auditory relay center, inferior colliculus (IC), of male albino Wistar rats was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Thirty-five male rats weighing between 180 and 200 g were used for the study. They were randomly divided into seven groups of five animals per group with Group 1 serving as the control. Groups 2, 3, and 4 received 10, 20, and 30 mg of quinine per kilogram body weight, respectively, for 7 days, while Groups 5, 6, and 7 received 10, 20, and 30 mg of quinine per kilogram body weight, respectively, for 7 days and then allowed to recover over time for another 7 days. The animals were sacrificed under chloroform anesthesia; The brain tissues were perfused with phosphate buffer solution, harvested, processed, stained using hematoxylin and eosin staining technique and observed histologically under light microscope. RESULTS: The IC of the Group 1 (control) showed normal histological features with the neurons appearing distinct with conspicuous cellular population. Seven-day quinine-treated groups (Groups 2–4) revealed mild-to-severe cellular distortion. Seven days after the withdrawal of quinine, the tissue sections appeared to have recovered completely with more neuronal density and cellular regeneration in the IC of Groups 5, 6, and 7. This study has revealed that quinine induces a dose-dependent toxicity on the IC of rats. CONCLUSION: It can also be concluded that, there is likelihood of complete natural recovery of the cellular cytoarchitecture and neuronal cell regeneration after 7 days of withdrawal of quinine.
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