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   2018| January-June  | Volume 17 | Issue 1  
    Online since July 18, 2019

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Hepatoprotective effect of methanol fruit pulp extract of Musa paradisiaca on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats
Mustapha Tosin Issa, Abel Nosereme Agbon, Sadiya Ufeli Balogun, Onesimus Mahdi, Khadijat Abubakar Bobbo, Felix Olu Ayegbusi
January-June 2018, 17(1):1-7
CONTEXT: Musa paradisiaca (Banana) fruit pulp has been used in folk medicine to treat various kinds of ailments, such as dysentery, diarrhea, bronchitis, ulcer, fevers, and hemorrhages in different parts of the globe, including Nigeria, Western Africa. AIM: This study was designed to histologically and biochemically assess the protective effect of methanol fruit pulp extract of M. paradisiaca (MFMP) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into six groups (I–VI; n = 4). Group I (control) was administered distilled H2O (2 ml/kg), whereas Groups II, III, and IV were administered MFMP (500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 1500 mg/kg, respectively) and Group V administered Silymarin (100 mg/kg), as the reference drug, for a period of 14 days. Hepatotoxicity was induced in rats by the administration of CCl4(1 ml, 1:1 solution: olive oil). On the 15th day, Groups II–VI were administered single dose of CCl4. All administrations were through the oral route. After 12 h of CCl4administration, rats were euthanized and liver organs harvested for routine (H and E) histological tissue processing and blood samples collected for biochemical analysis of serum liver enzymes (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase). RESULTS: MFMP-treatment revealed remarkable histoarchitectural preservation of the liver parenchyma against CCl4-induced liver damage and decreased (P < 0.05) serum liver enzyme levels elevated by CCl4. Hepatoprotective activity was comparable with that of the reference drug, Silymarin. CONCLUSION: Result suggests that MFMP possesses hepatoprotective potentials against chemically-induced acute hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. Hepatoprotective potential of MFMP is possible as a result of its antioxidant properties.
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Curative effect of aqueous extract of Cyperus esculentus on flutamide-induced testicular dysfunction in male Wistar rats
Luqman Adepoju Hassan, Godson Emeka Anyanwu, Nto Johnson Nto, Emmanuel Nebuwa Obikili, Elizabeth Finbarrs-Bello, L Ifeanacho Ezeteonu Abireh
January-June 2018, 17(1):13-17
BACKGROUND: The health of the testis is important for a man's sexual functioning and fertility. This study investigated the effect of aqueous extract of Cyperus esculentus on flutamide-induced testicular dysfunction in male Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following four groups: A–D (n = 4). Group A was given distilled water, and Group B was given 5 mg/kg body weight of flutamide daily for the period of the experiment. Group C was given 5 mg/kg body weight of flutamide 1 h before treatment with 150 mg/kg body weight of an extract of C. esculentus, and Group D was given 5 mg/kg body weight of flutamide 1 h before treatment with 300 mg/kg body weight of an extract of C. esculentus for 21 days. RESULTS: The hormonal assay showed that the extract produced a significant increase in serum testosterone and luteinizing hormone compared to the controls. The light microscopic study revealed degenerative changes in the germinal epithelium and interstitial tissue of the rats treated with flutamide, whereas the extract produced a marked increase in the number and volume of cells in the germinal epithelium compared to the positive control. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that C. esculentus could enhance testicular activity and ameliorate the adverse effect of flutamide on the testis.
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A unique variation of musculocutaneous nerve and median nerve and its clinical significance
Sumathilatha Sakthi-Velavan
January-June 2018, 17(1):41-44
The musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) and median nerve (MN) are branches of the brachial plexus that innervates the anterior compartment of the upper limb. Although the nerves have different course and distribution, communication between median and MCNs may result from an altered course of the nerve fibers during their development. Rare patterns of communication were found bilaterally in a male cadaver. The right MCN was fused with the MN for a length of 3 cm. The fused intermediate segment supplied biceps brachii, while the unfused segments supplied the other anterior arm muscles. The variation is a unique type of transposed nerve fibers supplying the brachial flexors and is a deviant of the defined patterns of communications. On the left side, a communication twig coursed anteriorly to the axillary artery from MCN to the MN. The surgical, neurophysiological, and embryological relevance of such variations is of great clinical significance.
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An abnormal communication between the sensory branches of the mandibular nerve
K Ariyanachi, S Nagaraj, Vishwajit Deshmukh
January-June 2018, 17(1):45-48
Variations and communications between the branches of the mandibular nerve in the infra-temporal fossa is quite common in literature, but not all of these variations have been mentioned in standard anatomical and surgical textbooks. Some of these variations are clinically important with regard to various surgical, dental, and anesthetic procedures performed in this region. During the routine dissection of infratemporal fossa for the undergraduates, we found the presence of an abnormal communication between the auriculotemporal nerve and inferior alveolar nerve on the right side and on the left side, the auriculotemporal nerve was found to have three roots of origin, in addition to an anomalous communication between the inferior alveolar nerve and the lingual nerve. The clinical implications of this variation have been discussed in this report which is essential for successful and uncomplicated surgical, dental, and anesthetic procedures.
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Morphological effects of chronic administration of zidovudine on the intracranial auditory relay centers of adult Wistar rats
Patrick Sunday Igbigbi, Josiah O Adjene, Kingsley Afoke Iteire, Babatunde Samson Ogunlade
January-June 2018, 17(1):8-12
BACKGROUND: Zidovudine is one of the very active antiretroviral treatments which have been effective in several combination regimens for the treatment of HIV disease. Widely accepted theories have recognized that such treatment regimens agents are capable of penetrating the blood brain barrier and may continue to exert damage to the brain, after antiviral treatment. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to investigate zidovudine-induced morphological changes in auditory relay centres of the brain. It is likely that the adverse effects of zidovudine as reported by several researches may be due to some underlying effect on the microanatomy of the intracranial auditory relay centres. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty rats with an average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into treatment (n1=20) and control (n2=20) groups. Zidovudine was dissolved in distilled water and a dose of 300mg/70kg (0.857mg/200g) was calculated and administered twice daily to the rats of the treatment group orally by the use of an orogastric tube for thirty days. The control group received equal volume of distilled water as placebo. The rats were later sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the inferior colliculi and medial geniculate bodies were dissected for morphometric and histological analysis. RESULTS/DISCUSSION: Results from this study revealed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in weight of the inferior colliculus of the treated rats but a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in weight of the medial geniculate body of the treated rats, as compared to their corresponding control groups. Histologically, the treated tissues revealed similar necrotic and cellular degenerative changes in the stroma when compared to tissues from the control group. These observations confirm the adverse effects of Zidovudine on the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate body of adult Wistar rats. However, it was also observed in this study that the effect of zidovudine was not similar on the two intracranial relay centres as previously believed. CONCLUSION: Further studies are needed in corroborating these observations, especially to determine the mechanism of hearing loss that is associated with zidovudine therapy..
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Correlation of hallux deviation angle with age, weight, height, and body mass index in adult Nigerians
Chijioke Mmadueke Okeke, Ukoha Ukoha Ukoha
January-June 2018, 17(1):18-22
CONTEXT: Hallux deviation angle (HDA) is the angle between the axis of the hallux and axis of the first metatarsal bone. AIMS: The aim was to determine whether there is any correlation between HDA and age, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) in an adult Nigerian population. SETTING AND DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1033 individuals consisting of 548 males and 485 females were studied. Age range was 15–74 years. HDA was measured by the goniometric method. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21. Correlation of HDA with age, weight, height, and BMI was done using Pearson's correlation. Test of significance was done using Chi-square. RESULTS: Mean age in years was 34.1 (±13.4) for males and 29.6 (±12.0) for females. Mean BMI in kg/m2 was 25.8 (±7.5) for males and 26.1 (±5.5) for females. The mean HDA in degrees on the right and left feet, respectively, were 5 ± 6 and 7 ± 7 for males and 5 ± 6 and 6 ± 6 for females. In males, there was a positive but weak correlation of HDA with age on both feet. There was also weak correlation of HDA with BMI on the right feet, but there was no correlation of HDA with weight and height. In females, there was positive and weak correlation of HDA with height on both feet while but there was no correlation with age, weight, or BMI. CONCLUSION: HDA did not correlate with age, weight, height and BMI in our environment.
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Histological evaluation of the antidyslipidemic effects of aqueous root extract of Morinda lucida
Olu Silvanus Innih, Josephine Omonkhelin Owolabi, Damilola Carolyn Ekpruke
January-June 2018, 17(1):23-28
BACKGROUND: Dyslipideamia is involved in the development of cardiovascular complications in diabetes, which is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in Nigeria AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The present study was undertaken to investigate the antidyslipidemic effect of aqueous root extract of Morinda lucida in cholesterol-induced dyslipidemia in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprises of five groups, Group 1 for control and 2, 3, 4 and 5. They were administered different doses of drug and extract by oral gavages using an orogastric tube at a once-daily dose for 14 days. At the end of 14 days, liver and abdominal aorta was harvested from rats in each group for histological study using the method. RESULTS: It was observed that Group 3 showed intracytoplasmic perinuclear fat vacuoles in the liver among other evidences of tissue damage while the abdominal aorta showed luminal obstruction, infiltrates of chronic inflammatory cells, and intimal ulceration. CONCLUSION: These effects were ameliorated after treatment with both atorvastatin and M. lucida extract, but there was more improved histology in the group treated with M. lucida extract.
  975 75 -
Anatomy of the anterolateral ligament of the knee joint and its impact on clinical practice
Elsayed Aly Mohamed Metwally, Nancy Mohamed Aly El-Sekily, Ahmad Hassan Wally
January-June 2018, 17(1):35-40
BACKGROUND: The anterolateral ligament (ALL) was identified as a thickening of the lateral capsule of the knee joint coming under tension with an applied internal rotation at 30° of flexion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, dissection of 20 lower limb specimens, 10 right and 10 left, of 10 formalin-preserved adult male cadavers was done for morphometric measurement of ALL. Nine male cases were subjected to combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and ALL reconstruction; seven cases with right knee involvement and two cases with left knee involvement. RESULTS: The ALL was clearly identified in all 20 lower limb cadaveric specimens. In all the specimens, ALL was identified along the anterolateral aspect of the extended knee, and it was in the form of a band. CONCLUSION: Combined ALL and ACL reconstruction has better rehabilitation of the patients.
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Histological effects of aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus leaf on Areca catechu-induced esophageal injury in adult Wistar rats
Gerald Ikechi Eze, Kevin Aiwanfoh Akonoafua
January-June 2018, 17(1):29-34
BACKGROUND: Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) has been reported to possess antimicrobial, antioxidant, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic properties, as well as the ability to modify gene transcription. The seeds of Areca catechu contain carcinogenic compounds. AIM: This study, therefore, evaluated the effects of aqueous extract of C. citratus on A. catechu-induced esophageal injury in adult Wistar rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of thirty rats weighing between 180 and 250 g were obtained from the laboratory animal facility of the Department of Anatomy, University of Benin, Benin city. The animals were randomly assigned to six groups of five animals each. Group A served as control group and received food and distilled water only, Group B received 1500 mg/kg body weight (bw) of A. catechu only, Group C received 1500 mg/kg bw of C. citratus only, Group D received 1500 mg/kg bw of A. catechu and 1000 mg/kg bw C. citratus, Group E received 1500 mg/kg bw of A. catechu and 2000 mg/kg of C. citratus, while Group F received 1500 mg/kg bw of A. catechu and 3000 mg/kg bw of C. citratus. The administration of extracts was commenced through oral gavage for 4 weeks. The rats were sacrificed, and appropriate histological procedures were carried out. RESULTS: Epithelial proliferation in the mucosa of the esophagus was caused by A. catechu, whereas C. citratus attenuated this lesion, as well as activating the immune system. CONCLUSION: Findings from the histological results showed that C. citratus protected the esophagus from the damages induced by A. catechu.
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